Heinrich Mann

Heinrich Mann



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Heinrich Mann, the oldest child of Thomas Johann Mann and Júlia da Silva Bruhns, was born in Lübeck, on 27th March 1871. His father was an energetic and successful businessman. In 1863, at the age of 23, had inherited the ownership of the Johann Siegmund Mann firm, a granary and shipping business dating back to the previous century. (1) Heinrich remembered his father as "young, gay, and carefree." (2)

Heinrich's brother, Thomas Mann, later recalled his father's "dignity and good sense, his ambition and industry, his personal and intellectual distinction, his social talents and his humor... he was not robust, rather nervous and susceptible to suffering; but he was a man dedicated to self-control". (3) His mother was described as "a much admired beauty and extraordinarily musical". (4)

Thomas Johann Mann was often in conflict with his son who he described as having a "dreamy loss of self-control and lack of consideration for others". (5) He hated school and although he spent most of his time reading he refused to conform to the requirements of his teachers. He still passed his exams with high grades but refused to go to university. (6)

Heinrich Mann refused to join the family business and in October 1889, he was employed by the Dresden book shop of Jaensch & Zahn as an apprentice. His employer was not impressed with his new apprentice and accused him of being "apathetic, indolence and truculence". (7)

In 1890 Heinrich Mann had some of poems published in Die Gesellschaft, the magazine was regarded to most modernist of the German periodicals. The following year Heinrich Mann moved to Berlin with the ambition to be a successful novelist. His father was very angry with this development and wrote: "I wish the guardians of my children to consider it their duty to influence these children towards a practical education. Insofar as they are able, they are to oppose my eldest son's leanings towards so-called literary activity. In my opinion he lacks the prerequisites for sound, successful work in this direction, namely sufficient study and broad knowledge." (8)

Heinrich Mann inherited some money from his father's estate in 1891 that enabled him to concentrate on being a writer. His hero was Heinrich Heine. His younger brother, Thomas Mann, also attempted to make it as a writer. He also admired Heine: "In his enthusiasm for Heine, in trying his hand at verse, fiction, and criticism, Thomas at this time was faithfully following in the footsteps of his elder brother. His youthful revolt against society, natural though it was for his age, seems also to have been borrowed from his brother, who was bohemian by instinct". (9)

Heinrich's first novel, Within a Family, was published in 1893. He was unable to obtain a living as a novelist and in April 1895 he became the editor of a periodical, The Twentieth Century: A Journal of German Art and Welfare. It was anti-capitalist and frequently anti-Semitic: "Heinrich drew caricatures of wealthy Jews and intellectuals, and he attacked the power of the Jewish press." (10)

In 1896 he moved to Paris and wrote what became known as "My Plan". Richard Winston has argued: "It is a curious document, full of delighted anticipations, avowals to himself that the whole plan is in the interests of a literary project, propitiatory reassurances to the ghost of his father that he really is not a wastrel. Heinrich also wondered whether he would be seeing the authentic fashionable world." (11)

Heinrich Mann's first important novel was In the Land of Cockaigne (1900) a portrayal of the decadence of high society. It is considered by most critics to be inferior to his brother's first novel, Buddenbrooks: The Decline of a Family (1901), a fictional account of the Mann family. "Compared to the Tolstoyan achievement of Buddenbrooks, Heinrich's novel may seem comparatively light, but contemporaries like Rilke felt it had ushered both expressionism and social criticism into the German novel. For his admirers Heinrich's early work, more topical, vivacious, and unfinished than his brother's - as the journalistic rate of production might guarantee - provides a more useful guide to the era as well as prophetic views of Germany's future. (These readers would contend that Buddenbrooks points backward.) (12)

In January 1905, Thomas Mann decided to marry Katia Pringsheim Mann, the daughter of a wealthy, Jewish industrialist family who owned coal mines and early railroads. Thomas wrote to Heinrich about his decision: "A feeling of the lack of freedom that I cannot rid myself of up to now, and of course you call me a timid plebeian. But it's easy for you to talk. You are absolute. I, on the other hand, have paused to improve my state of mind." (13)

Heinrich Mann did not attend his brother's wedding. His mother, who also did not approve of the marriage, wrote, "Please, please, dear Heinrich, follow my advice and do not withdraw from Tommy... You are both men blessed by God, dear Heinrich - don't let your personal relationship with Tommy become strained.... Your latest works were not without exception liked. That has nothing to do with your sibling relationship." (14)

Mann's portrait of a tyrannical provincial schoolmaster, Professor Unrat (1905) gained him good reviews. However, it was his novels, The Poor (1917), Man of Straw (1918) and The Patrioteer (1918), that brought him "great fame, a prophetic image, large earnings". (15) Thomas was jealous of Heinrich's success: "My brother-problem is the real, in any case the most difficult, problem of my life... At every step kinship and affront.... his books are bad in such an extraordinary way as to provoke passionate antagonism". (16)

Heinrich Mann became increasingly interested in left-wing politics. He was a supporter of Kurt Eisner, the Jewish leader of the Independent Socialist Party in Munich. This was a departure from his earlier anti-Semitism. Konrad Heiden has pointed out: "On November 6, 1918, he (Kurt Eisner) was virtually unknown, with no more than a few hundred supporters, more a literary than a political figure. He was a small man with a wild grey beard, a pince-nez, and an immense black hat. On November 7 he marched through the city of Munich with his few hundred men, occupied parliament and proclaimed the republic. As though by enchantment, the King, the princes, the generals, and Ministers scattered to all the winds." (17)

The following day Eisner led a large crowd into the local parliament building, where he made a speech where he declared Bavaria a Socialist Republic. Eisner made it clear that this revolution was different from the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and announced that all private property would be protected by the new government. Eisner explained that his program would be based on democracy, pacifism and anti-militarism. The King of Bavaria, Ludwig III, decided to abdicate and Bavaria was declared a republic.

On 9th November, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II also abdicated and the Chancellor, Max von Baden, handed power over to Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the German Social Democrat Party. At a public meeting, one of Ebert's most loyal supporters, Philipp Scheidemann, finished his speech with the words: "Long live the German Republic!" He was immediately attacked by Ebert, who was still a strong believer in the monarchy and was keen for one of the his grandsons to replace Wilhelm. (18)

On 21st February, 1919, Eisner was assassinated by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley. It is claimed that before he killed the leader of the Independent Socialist Party he said: "Eisner is a Bolshevist, a Jew; he isn't German, he doesn't feel German, he subverts all patriotic thoughts and feelings. He is a traitor to this land." (19)

Heinrich Mann spoke at Eisner's funeral and at his memorial three weeks later. Thomas Mann, who was deeply opposed to socialism, commented that Heinrich claimed that "Eisner had been the first intellectual at the head of a German state... in a hundred days he had had more creative ideas than others in fifty years, and... had fallen as a martyr to truth. Nauseating!" (20)

In 1924 Thomas Mann published his most successful novel, The Magic Mountain. This was followed by Disorder and Early Sorrow (1925). Heinrich wrote: "You know as well as I do myself that your honours and successes do not bother me. Sometimes a few crumbs are even tossed my way." Mann success was emphasized by being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1929.

Heinrich Mann had more success when his novel, Professor Unrat, was turned into the popular film, The Blue Angel (1930). The film was directed by Josef von Sternberg and starred Emil Jannings, Marlene Dietrich and Kurt Gerron. Philip French has argued: "Jannings gives an exquisitely detailed performance as the pompous, middle-aged Professor Rath, a high-school teacher whose life is destroyed through his romantic infatuation with Lola Lola (Dietrich), a wilful young singer he meets at the eponymous nightclub." (21)

Heinrich fell in love with the actress Trude Hesterberg, a Berlin actress. He now divorced his first wife Mimi Kanova, a Czech actress, (married 1914). However, the couple argued about politics and when she joined the Nazi Party, the relationship came to an end: "As a woman and an artist I naturally have been influenced by all tendencies of the times, but I never became a politician. I have always instinctively considered my art as a megaphone of the popular opinions of the day. Out of this sense of artistic duty, I became a member of the Nazi party and the Fighting League." (22)

In June 1932 Heinrich Mann joined with Albert Einstein, Ernst Toller, Arnold Zweig, Käthe Kollwitz, Karl Kollwitz, Willi Eichler, Arthur Kronfeld, Kurt Grossmann, Karl Emonts, Anton Erkelenz, Hellmuth Falkenfeld, Walter Hammer, Theodor Hartwig, Maria Hodann, Minna Specht, Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Erich Kaestner, Theodor Plievier, August Siemsen, Helene Stocker, Pietro Nenni, Erich Zeigner, Paul Oestreich and Franz Oppenheimer to sign an appeal by the International Socialist Combat League (ISK) for tactical cooperation of German Communist Party (KPD) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) in the Reichstag elections of July 1932.

Adolf Hitler gained power in January 1933. Soon afterwards, a large number of writers were declared to be "degenerate authors" because they were Jews or held left-wing views. This included Heinrich Mann, Bertolt Brecht, Hans Eisler, Ernst Toller, Albert Einstein, Helen Keller, H.G. Wells, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, Erich Maria Remarque, Karl Kautsky, Thomas Heine, Arnold Zweig, Ludwig Renn, Jack London, Rainer Maria Rilke, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka, Theodor Plievier, Magnus Hirschfeld, Max Brod, Richard Katz, Franz Werfel, Alfred Döblin, Lion Feuchtwangerand Hermann Hesse. On 10th May, the Nazi Party arranged the burning of thousands of "degenerate literary works" were burnt in German cities. (23)

However, Thomas Mann's work still remained popular in Germany and unlike his brother, Heinrich, had made no statements attacking the regime. His biographer, Hermann Kurzke, has argued that during the period before he took power, Mann developed friendships with some significant figures in the Nazi Party: "Does that make Thomas Mann a precursor of Fascism? He certainly made an effort to stay out of the way of the resurgent right-wing movement of the time. Very early on in the summer of 1921, he took note of the rising Nazi movement and dismissed it as ‘swastika nonsense’. As early as 1925 when Hitler was still imprisoned in Landsberg, he rejected the cultural barbarity of German Fascism with an extensive, decisive and clearly visible gesture." (24) However, others had pointed out, he had always been careful not to attack Hitler in print. (25)

To escape arrest, Heinrich Mann, went to live in Paris. He joined Klaus Mann and Erika Mann in the German resistance to Hitler. Klaus went to Amsterdam, where he worked for the first emigre journal of anti-fascism, Die Sammlung, which attacked the government in Nazi Germany. Heinrich contributed to the magazine. Thomas Mann condemned the venture and pleaded with his son and brother to withdraw their support for the journal. (26)

In 1939 Heinrich Mann married Nelly Kroeger, who he had been living with for ten years. She was almost thirty years his junior and described as "a pretty, animated, ex-barmaid". After the fall of France in the summer of 1940, Heinrich and Nelly escaped across the Pyrenees to reach Madrid. Heinrich, who was now 69, needed the support of the much younger Nelly. Eventually they got to Lisbon and took the last available ship passages to New York City. (27)

Heinrich Mann went to live in Los Angeles and was given a 12 month contract with Warner Brothers (none of the movies were made). After this he became more and more impoverished. He received help from his brother Thomas but he had a intense dislike of Nelly who was frequently drunk, who he described as "repugnant... foolish ... a terrible trollop". (28)

In January, 1944, they made a joint suicide attempt. Nelly was transferred to a psychiatric hospital. She told Heinrich: "I can not think of what I have suffered the last two years, and only because I in my deepest humiliation a glass of wine much had been drinking and was often drunk, I have not completely lost my mind. Now I want to live! It's all up to you, that we organize in quality and without making even more attention this matter. Otherwise you force me to do something that you intended... sorry." (29)

Nelly Mann returned home but took an overdose of sleeping pills on 17th December, 1944. Heinrich Mann reported in a letter to a friend "She died in the ambulance... This last year was misery and terror... people who know nothing, I try to suggest that it is better... No... I hardly leave the apartment, which her ​​was." Heinrich was devastated but Thomas Mann was "relieved". (30) Thomas wrote that Heinrich's "very favorable income had melted away far into the negative through the disastrous goings-on of his wife." (31)

Heinrich Mann remained active in left-wing politics but was upset when friends such as Hans Eisler and Bertolt Brecht were ordered to appear before the Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Eisler and Brecht both decided to leave the country. Thomas Mann described the behaviour of members of the HUAC such as John Rankin and J. Parnell Thomas as "fascistic". In his diary he wrote: "What oath would Congressman Rankin or Thomas take if forced to swear that they hated fascism as much as Communism?" (32)

The East German government offered him the post as president of the Academy of Fine Arts. Thomas commented in his diary that "Soviet money reaches Heinrich, which he claims is royalties, while it is probably travel money." (33) Heinrich Mann was making plans to leave the country when he died in Los Angeles on 11th March, 1950.

Heinrich Mann was buried in Santa Monica: "The participants not very numerous. Wreaths and flowers a beautiful sight. My wreath with To my big brother, with love." (34)

Heinrich published his first novel, Within a Family, when he was twenty-two. His first important novel, In the Land of Cockaigne, appeared in 1900. Compared to the Tolstoyan achievement of Buddenbrooks, Heinrich's novel may seem comparatively light, but contemporaries like Rilke felt it had ushered both expressionism and social criticism into the German novel. (These readers would contend that Buddenbrooks points backward.)

In May 1933, when "un-German" books were being burned, Heinrich Mann’s were on the bonfire. Thomas Mann’s were not. He was still being protected by Bertram, among others. But his main protection was his own silence. In September the first issue of Die Sammlung appeared, with a provocative essay by Heinrich Mann and an editorial by Klaus: "The true, valid German literature... cannot remain silent before the degradation of its people and the outrage it perpetrates on itself... A literary periodical is not a political periodical... Nevertheless, today it will have a political mission. Its position must be unequivocal." Goebbels, in retaliation, stripped Heinrich of his citizenship, and the following year Klaus, too, was declared stateless...

In March 1937, the entire Mann family, including Heinrich, was granted Czechoslovak citizenship. Klaus could now travel to Budapest to seek a cure for his heroin addiction. Six months later he returned to the US and to Erika, who took him with her on what became joint lecture tours. Their titles included ‘What Price Peace?’, ‘What Does the Youth of Europe Believe in Today?’ and ‘Our Father and His Work’. They wrote two books together.

One day in May 1937, dignified Thomas Mann shinnied self-consciously down the Ivory Tower and announced that a writer's business is to be political as well as literary. Elder Brother Heinrich Mann might have snickered in his lush Van Dyke beard, for Brother Thomas was only preaching what Brother Heinrich has spent a lifetime practising. For some 40 of his 68 years he has been writing a series of historical novels which constitutes a political and sociological record of the German people from Kaiserdom to "folkdom." If there is no Magic Mountain among his collected works, Brother Heinrich might well claim that they form a whole mountain chain with respectable, and occasionally imposing, literary heights.

To those heights Author Mann last week added a peak in the shape of massive, craggy, 786-page Henry, King of France, crammed with up-to-the-minute politics in 16th-Century dress, royal venery, papist deviltry and a necessary quota of ruffs and ruffians.

Europe's crisis in the 16th Century looked much like Europe's crisis in the 20th. The line-up then was the Habsburgs' medieval world reich and the Catholic Church v. the collective-security front of Protestant England, Holland and France. Protestantism and Catholicism were in the balance. The curious instrument that tipped this balance for Protestantism was shifty, sentimental, sensual Henry IV of Navarre. He did it by turning Catholic but ruling in the interests of Protestantism. Jesuits finally succeeded in murdering him as he was planning a Protestant crusade against the Habsburgs which had all the earmarks of a Stop Hitler Drive.

Far too sound a craftsman and too good a storyteller to point up obvious present-day implications, Author Mann lets his political chips fall where they may, lets his readers pick up whatever chips they prefer. Some readers will find that Henry's intriguing enemies, disgruntled Protestants, priests, Jesuits, Spaniards, resemble Nazis; others will be reminded of Communists. Fussed historians will throw up their hands at the free-&-easy handling of history. But few will deny that thoroughgoing German Heinrich Mann, in seasoning this lump of historical data into a right royal and highly spiced narrative, has produced, if not a first-rate novel, a monster tour de force.

In 1916, the novelist Thomas Mann wrote to his friend Ernst Bertram that he believed the tragedy of Germany was "symbolised and personified by my brother and myself". He may have been correct. The story of the strained relationship between Thomas and Heinrich Mann - characterised by a lifelong hate-envy - is a familiar part of German literary history. According to the German critic Marcel Reich-Ranicki, in his book Thomas Mann and his Family (1989), Thomas Mann "was as sensitive as a prima donna and as vain as a tenor". Reich-Ranicki hits exactly the right note: the Mann family story is the stuff of German opera.

Thomas and Heinrich were from Lübeck in northern Germany. Heinrich was the elder by four years. He dropped out of school, gave up work, and became a writer. His little brother Thomas wanted to be just like him. With the publication of his very first novel, Buddenbrooks (1901) – a fictional account of the Mann family – he succeeded. The book became a sensation. Thomas became rich and famous. "I was swept up in a whirl of success," he wrote. In 1912 he wrote Death in Venice and in 1929, he won the Nobel prize for literature. Meanwhile, Heinrich disappeared in his brother's wake.

Among his many works, Heinrich wrote only one novel that is now remembered, Professor Unrat (1905), and that only because in 1930 it was made into a film - The Blue Angel – starring Marlene Dietrich. Heinrich's books were not merely bad, wrote Thomas, but "bad in such an extraordinary way as to provoke passionate antagonism". "My brother-problem", he wrote in a letter in 1917, "is the real, in any case the most difficult, problem of my life... At every step kinship and affront." Kinship and affront: not only Thomas Mann's themes as a writer, but the story of his life.

In 1905, Thomas married Katia Pringsheim and they had six children, despite the fact that Mann was gay, or rather, in Colm Toíbín's nice phrase, "gay most of the time". One biographer, Andrea Weiss, has argued that Mann did not care at all for Katia, only for her "cultured background, her family's position in Munich society, and no doubt the prospect of regaining the privileges of wealth which had eluded him since the death of his father".

His relations with his children were similarly complex. "When a man has six children, he can't love them all equally," Mann claimed. He loved the eldest, Erika, the most. She was an actor, and eventually became his assistant. Only one of his children, Klaus, became a novelist and he faced the same problem as Heinrich: how to compete with Thomas? He couldn't, and on 21 May 1949, in Cannes, he killed himself with an overdose of sleeping pills. Mann interpreted his son's death as a consequence of exile from Germany. But Klaus had faced other, more obvious challenges: he was a drug addict, he was gay and he was the son of Thomas Mann.

Another son, Michael, also killed himself (as did Mann's two sisters, and Heinrich's second wife). A third son, Golo, became an eminent historian, without a good word to say about his father. Only the two younger daughters, Monika and Elisabeth, seemed to have escaped their father's long, dark shadow.

On close inspection, great artistic dynasties often seem to be made out of other people's agony. Katia supported her husband, and raised their children at great personal cost. Late in life, she remarked: "I just wanted to say, I have never in my life been able to do what I would have liked to do."

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(1) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 7

(2) Richard Winston, Thomas Mann: The Making of an Artist (1982) page 9

(3) Thomas Mann, Lübeck as a Way of Life and Thought (1926) page xiv

(4) Richard Winston, Thomas Mann: The Making of an Artist (1982) page 9

(5) Hermann Kurzke, Thomas Mann (2002) page 18

(6) Richard Winston, Thomas Mann: The Making of an Artist (1982) page 30

(7) Sigrid Anger, Heinrich Mann (1971) page 44

(8) Thomas Johann Mann, statement in his will (June, 1891)

(9) Richard Winston, Thomas Mann: The Making of an Artist (1982) page 49

(10) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 68

(11) Richard Winston, Thomas Mann: The Making of an Artist (1982) page 52

(12) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 115

(13) Thomas Mann, letter to Heinrich Mann (17th January, 1906)

(14) Hermann Kurzke, Thomas Mann (2002) pages 112-113

(15) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 68

(16) Ian Sansom, The Guardian (18th June, 2011)

(17) Konrad Heiden, Hitler: A Biography (1936) page 23

(18) Simon Taylor, Revolution, Counter-Revolution and the Rise of Hitler (1983) page 30

(19) Chris Harman, The Lost Revolution (1982) page 127

(20) Heinrich Mann, letter to Thomas Mann (27th August, 1927)

(21) Philip French, The Blue Angel (10th March, 2013)

(22) Peter Jelavich, Berlin Cabaret (1996) page 233

(23) Peter Hoffmann, The History of German Resistance (1977) page 15

(24) Hermann Kurzke, Thomas Mann (2002) page 264

(25) Colm Tóibín, New Ways to Kill Your Mother: Writers and Their Families (2013) page 196

(26) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 527

(27) Hermann Kurzke, Thomas Mann (2002) page 449

(28) Thomas Mann, diary entry (29th April, 1942)

(29) Nelly Kroeger, letter to Heinrich Mann (30th January, 1944)

(30) Anthony Heilbut, Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature (1995) page 527

(31) Thomas Mann, diary entry (20th December, 1944)

(32) Thomas Mann, diary entry (5th October, 1947)

(33) Thomas Mann, diary entry (14th September, 1949)

(34) Thomas Mann, diary entry (14th March, 1950)


Heinrich Mann and Nietzsche

Heinrich iann and Nietzsche inspiration of Nietzsche. Nietzsche’s search to discover in a bourgeois age the qualities that make up a genuinely “noble” scale of values is a recurrent theme in much of his work. The essay “Was ist vornehm?” at the end of Jenseits von Gut und Bb’se raises the problem most specifically : “woran erkennt man, unter diesem schweren verhangten Himmel der beginnenden Pobelherrschaft, durch den Alles undurchsichtig und bleiern wird, den vornehmen Menschen ?” ( XV, 252)l The picture of the Duchess of Assy, for all her individual and personal qualities, reflects a similar search to reveal the characteristics that are the expression of a noble or aristocratic tradition. Mann is seeking in his own way to discover the values Nietzsche sought: “typische Merkmale der vornehmen Moral, welche, wie angedeutet, nicht die Moral der ‘modernen Ideen’ ist und deshalb heute schwer nachzufuhlen, auch schwer auszugraben und aufzudecken ist” ( XV, 229). Violante, Duchess of Assy, lives in constant awareness of her family’s past. Her ancestors go back to the freebooters of the Renaissance and beyond that to the Norman conquerors of France and Sicily and the pagan Norseman Bjorn Bjornside. Menschen der Entzweiung, der Schwarmerei,

Journal

Modern Language Quarterly: A Journal of Literary History &ndash Duke University Press


Heinrich Mann - History


Heinrich Mann
German writer

born March 27, 1871, Lübeck, Ger.
died March 12, 1950, Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.

Main
German novelist and essayist, a socially committed writer whose best-known works are attacks on the authoritarian social structure of German society under Emperor William II.

Mann, the elder brother of the novelist Thomas Mann, entered publishing, but, after the death (1891) of their father, a prosperous grain merchant, he became financially independent and lived in Berlin, spending long periods abroad, particularly in France. His early novels portray the decadence of high society (Im Schlaraffenland [1900 In the Land of Cockaigne]), and his later books deal with the greed for wealth, position, and power in William’s Germany. Mann’s merciless portrait of a tyrannical provincial schoolmaster, Professor Unrat (1905 Small Town Tyrant), became widely known through its film version Der blaue Engel (1928 The Blue Angel). His Kaiserreich trilogy—consisting of Die Armen (1917 The Poor) Der Untertan (1918 The Patrioteer) and Der Kopf (1925 The Chief)—carries even further his indictment of the social types produced by the authoritarian state. These novels were accompanied by essays attacking the arrogance of authority and the subservience of the subjects. A lighter work of this period is Die kleine Stadt (1909 The Little Town).

After 1918 Mann became a prominent spokesman for democracy and published volumes of political essays, Macht und Mensch (1919 “Might and Man”) and Geist und Tat (1931 “Spirit and Act”). He was forced into exile in 1933 when the Nazis came to power, and he spent several years in France before immigrating to the United States. His novel Henri Quatre (two parts, 1935 and 1938) represents his ideal of the humane use of power.

Professor Unrat

Heinrich Mann
1871-1955

Elder brother of the great German writer Thomas Mann, Heinrich, an equally prolific novelist and essayist, differed from his brother in his commitment to political rather than aesthetic issues. Exiled by the Nazis for his attacks on their militarist-nationalist ideology he was also a passionate critic of imperial bourgeois capitalism and a staunch supporter of democracy and various forms of socialism. Professor Unrat is his best known novel, having been successfully adapted for screen, most famously as Josef von Sternberg's The Blue Angel, with Marlene Dietrich in the lead role, which launched her into international stardom.

The novel concerns an authoritarian, repressed socially inept schoolteacher who falls in love with a young dancer named Rosa Frohlich, After an arbitrary meeting, Professor Unrat is soon enthrallec by Rosa's compelling charm, and he determines that no one else shall have anything further to do with her. Unrat's close association with such a woman scandalizes the small-town community and he loses his job at the school. But he is unperturbec and with Rosa's help reinvents himself as a high society player. They establish a successful salon ana he delights in watching the downfall of former pupils and enemies, as they lose their fortunes at the gambling table or their reputations in inappropriate liaisons. But the greatest downfall will be his own as he gradually learns the full extent of Rosa's suspect behavior, losing control of his all-consuming rage.

Professor Unrat is a fascinating examination of the social values of imperial Germany and the power of desire to transform and control even the most iron-willed of men. Unrat's slow demise at the hands of one of literature's great femme fatales is a captivating cautionary tale.

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Heinrich Mann

Personality: Heinrich is actually easy going fairly nice. This has been tempered by years as an agent.

Psychological Quirks and Problems: Heinrich has gone through any number of crises of confidence, conscience and security, all of which have left him much more robust, mentally.

Parents/Relatives: None, Currently.

Friends: Former members of his Bureau 13 Teams, contacts and now members of the staff at the Warp Drive Project.

Lovers: Currently Heinrich is single.

Likes/Interests/Hobbies: Heinrich is a modeler, with a specific focus on dollhouses and dolls. He tries to recreate, in miniature, a home life he didn't have. Heinrich is well aware of this, and has done therapy about it. He is also an amateur philosopher. His field of interest are the German philosophers and debunking Nazi or evil interpretations of them. Heinrich also is a student of improvisational theater, the better to improvise his way through a "Social engineering" situation.

Skills/ Training/ Professional Skills: Heinrich is a skilled Bureau-13 agent, skilled in investigations, spy craft and other variations. He is a superior combatant

Goals and Ambitions: To have family.

Pets: None, currently, but he's a soft touch for furry critters in need.

Primary Power/Weapons: Heinrich is very strong and durable, a formidable physical combatant. He works on being clever and thinking quickly on his feet


Bezug historischer Hintergrund - Werk [ edit | edit source ]

Professor Unrat (1905) [ edit | edit source ]

Im Buch "Professor Unrat" geht es um den altenden Gymnasialprofessor Raat, welcher als "Unrat" verhöhnt wird. In seinen Schülern sieht er Feinde, welche er fassen und vernichten will, selbst dann als diese die Schule bereits verlassen haben. Er sieht sich selbst als Ordnungshüter und Vertreter der Staatsgewalt und verschafft sich Genugtuung durch die Vereitelung und Bestrafung von Schülern und ihren Streichen.

In dieser Gesellschaftssatire schreibt Heinrich Mann über die Zustände im kaiserlichen Deutschland. Er analysiert das Verhalten des gedrillten wilhelminischen Untertanen und verzerrt dessen Züge von moralischer Strenge, Menschenhass, Erstarrung und Bigotterie ins Satirisch-Groteske. Er zeichnet darin wie in kaum einem anderen literarischen Werk der Zeit in scharfen Konturen das kaiserliche Schulwesen und seine Erziehungsprinzipien, die vor allem in der Heranbildung von Untertanengeist und Kadavergehorsam bestanden.

Der Untertan (1918) [ edit | edit source ]

Im Buch "Der Untertan" geht es um Diederich Hessling, einen feigen Mitläufer und Feind des Proletariats. Als Fabrikbesitzer und Obrigkeitsangehöriger identifiziert er sich mit den Weltmachtambitionen der radikalen Nationalisten, leidet aber gleichzeitig darunter, dass er von der „Zugehörigkeit zu einem unpersönlichen Ganzen, zu diesem unerbittlichen, menschenverachtenden, maschinellen Organismus“ geprägt wurde.


Bereits vor 1871 ist Preußen eine Industriemacht. Im kapitalistischen Deutschland wird der Gegensatz zwischen Bürgertum und Adel verdrängt. Die feudalen Machstrukturen bleiben jedoch erhalten, da der Bürger, welcher der erfolgreiche privatwirtschaftliche Unternehmer war, sich nur seinen wirtschaftlichen Interessen und seiner Familie widmete und politisch inaktiv war, was im Werk "Der Untertan" deutlich zum Tragen kommt. Die Bürger unterwerfen sich freiwillig der militärischen Hierarchie und kopieren die Umgangsformen der Feudalklasse. Zusammen mit dem Adel bilden das Bürgertum eine wirtschaftliche und politische Interessengemeinschaft gegen das aus der Industrialisierung hervorgegangene Proletariat, was die Übernahme der Ideologie des Feudaladels durch das Bürgertum bedeutete: Nationalismus, Militarismus, Antisozialismus, Antisemitismus und Imperialismus.


Heinrich Mann

Born in Lübeck as the oldest child of Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann and Júlia da Silva Bruhns, he was the elder brother of Thomas Mann. His father came from a patrician grain merchant family and was a Senator of the Hanseatic city. After the death of his father, his mother moved the family to Munich, where Heinrich began his career as a freier Schriftsteller or free novelist.

His essay on Zola and the novel Der Untertan earned him much respect during the Weimar Republic, since it satirized German society and explained how its political system had led to the First World War. Eventually, his book Professor Unrat was liberally adapted into the successful movie Der Blaue Engel (The Blue Angel). Carl Zuckmayer wrote the script, and Josef von Sternberg was the director. The book's author wanted his girlfriend, the actress Trude Hesterberg, to play the lead, but Marlene Dietrich was given her first major role instead as Lola Lola the "actress" (named Rosa Fröhlich in the novel).

Together with Albert Einstein and other celebrities, Mann was a signatory to a letter to the International League of Human Rights condemning the murder of Croatian scholar Dr Milan Šufflay on 18 February 1931.

Mann became persona non grata in Nazi Germany and left even before the Reichstag fire in 1933. He went to France where he lived in Paris and Nice. During the German occupation he made his way to Marseille in Vichy France and there was aided by Varian Fry in 1940 to escape to Spain. He then went to Portugal and sailed to America.

During the 1930s and later in American exile, his literary career went downhill, and eventually he died in Santa Monica, California, lonely and without much money, just months before he was to move to Soviet-occupied Germany to become president of the Prussian Academy of Arts. His ashes were later taken to East Germany.


The Forgotten History of L.A.'s German Exiles, Which Included Bertolt Brecht and Thomas Mann

As Los Angeles Times architecture critic Christopher Hawthorne reported this week, the home of celebrated German novelist Thomas Mann is for sale. For just $15 million, you can enjoy the house's “parklike grounds with lush forest solitude … on one of the most desired streets in the Pacific Palisades Riviera.”

That's according to the listing agent's website, which makes no mention that the home on San Remo Drive was built by the author of The Magic Mountain and Death in Venice instead the ad urges prospective buyers to “create your dream estate,” leading Hawthorne to conclude that the home is being marketed as a teardown. That's led to all manner of consternation in Germany, where Mann is revered according to LAist's Julia Wick, Germans have “posited that the brokers might be concealing Mann's identity so that the home doesn't become some kind of cultural monument, which could scare off potential buyers.”

Interesting theory. But Mann is a largely forgotten figure today in Los Angeles, as are nearly all the German émigrés who found refuge here in the 1940s, escaping the rise of Adolf Hitler and the horrors of World War II. So large and thriving was the Austrian and German expat community back then that some called it “Weimar on the Pacific.”

There were filmmakers like Fritz Lang, Ernst Lubitsch and Billy Wilder, composers like Arthur Schoenberg, playwrights like Bertolt Brecht and, of course, novelists like Thomas Mann and his older brother, Heinrich.

“America welcomed them, for the most part, with variations of apathy and dismay,” wrote Otto Friedrich in his wonderful history of Hollywood in the 1940s, City of Nets.

Not all of the exiles liked Los Angeles. Brecht hated it, in part because he was labeled an “enemy alien” and barred from leaving his home after 8 p.m., and in part because his efforts to make it as a screenwriter ended in complete and utter rejection.

“Nothing could please him,” Friedrich wrote. “The opulent fruits of California impressed him as having 'neither smell nor taste.' The pretty little houses on which Californians prided themselves were still worse — 'addition built onto the garages.' In fact, prettiness itself was an affront. 'Cheap prettiness,' said the exile, 'depraves everything.'”

Mann, however, thrived in Los Angeles. He moved to the Pacific Palisades — “one of Los Angeles' elegant scenic suburbs, near Hollywood,” according to Janet Flanner in her two-part New Yorker profile of Mann, titled “Goethe in Hollywood.”

Though Hollywood is now the German intellectual émigrés' accepted center, Mann's interest in settling there was not altogether social. Apparently he has recently played with the idea of writing a Hollywood novel as a parallel to “The Magic Mountain” and its special theme of sickness. He thinks there is a psychological condition secular to Hollywood which makes of it an island not unlike his island of Davos, on its Swiss mountaintop. Mann also has a tiny Achilles' heel he would love to have a movie made of one of his novels.

That dream was never realized (at least not in his lifetime — Death in Venice was made into a film in 1971). Not that Mann cared. As he wrote to his friend, the author Herman Hesse:

You ought to see the landscape around our house, with the view of the ocean, the garden with its trees — palm, olive, pepper, lemon and eucalyptus — the luxuriant flowers, the lawns that are ready for mowing a few days after the seeds are sown. Bright sensory impressions are no small matter in times like these, and the sky is bright here almost throughout the year, sending out an incomparable light which makes everything look beautiful.”

His brother, meanwhile, toiled as a screenwriter for $125 a week. Heinrich Mann wrote of “loneliness and ingratitude,” while Thomas wrote of being “enchanted by the light, by the special fragrance of the air, by the blue of the sky, the sun, the exhilarating ocean breeze, the spruceness and cleanness of this Southland.”

Thomas Mann Credit: UCLA Library Digital Collections / Creative Commons

Such enchantment would not last. Mann, who was one of the few Germans to publicly speak out against Hitler, became one of the few successful writers to speak out against the House of Un-American Activities Committee (or HUAC), which held nine days of hearings on Hollywood in 1947, kicking off the Hollywood blacklist.

“As an American of German birth,” Mann declared (as told by Friedrich), “I am painfully familiar with certain political trends. Spiritual intolerance, political inquisitions, and declining legal security, and all this in the name of an alleged 'state of emergency' … that is how it started in Germany. What followed was fascism, and what filled fascism was war.”

After Mann defied U.S. authorities by visiting Communist-bloc East Germany, his speeches began to get canceled. U.S. Representative Donald Jackson of Los Angeles, who sat on HUAC, said this about Mann, as relayed by Friedrich:

Our imminent guest within the gates of what we Americans consider to be a land of liberty and justice will do well to lard his obvious sympathies for communism and communists with a few strips of common sense and common gratitude. Mr. Mann should remember that guests who complain about the fare at the table of their hosts are seldom invited to another meal.

“This sick, tense atmosphere of this country oppresses me,” Mann wrote in a letter to a friend. He wanted only to “go back to the old earth.”

Just as Mann was part of a wave of Europeans fleeing the rise of Nazism, he joined other Europeans like Ingrid Bergman and Charlie Chaplin (as well as Brecht, who fled the country the day after he testified before HUAC), who were all but chased out of the country. Mann moved out of his beloved Palisades home in 1952, flying to Zurich, which would be his last home.

Of Los Angeles, he wrote, like a spurned lover: “I have no desire to rest my bones in this soulless soil, which I owe nothing, and which knows nothing of me.”


Sources

SA BDM (Secondary evidence) Page: Kap 229 167 Text: Given Name(s): Gottlieb Heinrich Last Name: MANN Birth Date: 1879, October 21 Gender: M Father: Gottlieb Heinrich MANN Mother: Louise GLAWSCHESKI Birth Place/Residence: District: Kapunda Symbol: Book/Page: 229/167

SA BDM (Secondary evidence) Page: Ang H 743 3538 Text: Given Name(s): Gottlieb Heinrich Last Name: MANN Death Date: 23 Jul 1949 Gender: M Age: 69y Approx. Birth Year: 1880 Marital Status: M Relative 1: Relative 2: Residence: Mannum Death Place: Mannum District: Angaston Symbol: H Book/Page: 743/3538

SA BDM - Digger - SA Marriages Registrations 1842-1916 (Secondary evidence) Page: Tal S 220/976 Text: Groom Given Name(s): Gottlieb Heinrich Groom Last Name: MANN Bride Given Name(s): Louisa Clara Bride Last Name: SCHUETZE Marriage Date: 1904, September 06 Marriage Place: Launch Etona Chapel Schultz Landing Mannum Groom Age: 24 Groom Approx. Birth Year: 1880 Groom Marital Status: S Groom Father: Gottlieb Heinrich MANN Bride Age: 20 Bride Approx. Birth Year: 1884 Bride Marital Status: S Bride Father Name: Carl Friedrich SCHUETZE District: Talunga Symbol: S Book/Page: 220/976 . Married in the chapel of the paddle steamer Etona, at a farm at Schuetze's Landing.


Horace Mann

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Horace Mann, (born May 4, 1796, Franklin, Massachusetts, U.S.—died August 2, 1859, Yellow Springs, Ohio), American educator, the first great American advocate of public education who believed that, in a democratic society, education should be free and universal, nonsectarian, democratic in method, and reliant on well-trained professional teachers.

Mann grew up in an environment ruled by poverty, hardship, and self-denial. He was taught briefly and erratically by comparatively poor teachers, but he managed to educate himself in the Franklin town library, and, with tutoring in Latin and Greek from Samuel Barrett (later a leading Unitarian minister), he gained admission at the age of 20 to the sophomore class at Brown University (Providence, Rhode Island). He did brilliant work at Brown, manifesting great interest in problems of politics, education, and social reform his valedictory address, on the gradual advancement of the human race in dignity and happiness, was a model of humanitarian optimism, offering a way in which education, philanthropy, and republicanism could combine to allay the wants and shortcomings that beset humankind.

Upon graduation in 1819 Mann chose law as a career. He read law briefly with a Wrentham, Massachusetts, lawyer, taught for a year at Brown, and then studied at Litchfield (Connecticut) Law School, which led to his admission to the bar in 1823. He settled in Dedham, Massachusetts, and there his legal acumen and oratorical skill soon won him a seat in the state House of Representatives, where he served from 1827 to 1833. There he led the movement that established a state hospital for the insane at Worcester, the first of its kind in the United States. In 1833 he moved to Boston, and from 1835 to 1837 he served in the Massachusetts Senate, of which he was president in 1836.

Of the many causes Mann espoused, none was dearer to him than popular education. Nineteenth-century Massachusetts could boast a public school system going back to 1647. Yet during Mann’s own lifetime, the quality of education had deteriorated as school control had gradually slipped into the hands of economy-minded local districts. A vigorous reform movement arose, committed to halting this decline by reasserting the state’s influence. The result was the establishment in 1837 of a state board of education, charged with collecting and publicizing school information throughout the state. Much against the advice of friends, who thought he was tossing aside a promising political career, Mann accepted the first secretaryship of this board.

Endowed with little direct power, the new office demanded moral leadership of the highest order and this Mann supplied for 11 years. He started a biweekly Common School Journal in 1838 for teachers and lectured widely to interested groups of citizens. His 12 annual reports to the board ranged far and wide through the field of pedagogy, stating the case for the public school and discussing its problems. Essentially his message centred on six fundamental propositions: (1) that a republic cannot long remain ignorant and free, hence the necessity of universal popular education (2) that such education must be paid for, controlled, and sustained by an interested public (3) that such education is best provided in schools embracing children of all religious, social, and ethnic backgrounds (4) that such education, while profoundly moral in character, must be free of sectarian religious influence (5) that such education must be permeated throughout by the spirit, methods, and discipline of a free society, which preclude harsh pedagogy in the classroom and (6) that such education can be provided only by well-trained, professional teachers. Mann encountered strong resistance to these ideas—from clergymen who deplored nonsectarian schools, from educators who condemned his pedagogy as subversive of classroom authority, and from politicians who opposed the board as an improper infringement of local educational authority—but his views prevailed.


Later life [ edit ]

During the 1930s and later in American exile, Mann's literary popularity waned. Nevertheless, he wrote Die Jugend des Königs Henri Quatre and Die Vollendung des Königs Henri Quatre as part of the Exilliteratur. The two novels described the life and importance of Henry IV of France and were acclaimed by his brother Thomas Mann, who spoke of the "great splendour and dynamic art" of the work. The plot, based on Europe's early modern history from a French perspective, anticipated the end of French–German enmity.

His second wife, Nelly Mann (1898–1944), committed suicide in Los Angeles.

Heinrich Mann died on March 11, 1950, sixteen days before his 79th birthday, in Santa Monica, California, lonely and without much money, just months before he was to relocate to East Berlin to become president of the German Academy of Arts. His ashes were later taken to East Germany and were interred at the Dorotheenstadt Cemetery in a grave of honor.


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