Midas Timeline

Midas Timeline

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Timeline: History of the Gold Standard

November 10, 2010
1934: The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 gives the government the permanent title to all monetary gold and halts the minting of gold coins.

It also allows gold certificates to be held only by the Federal Reserve Banks, putting the U.S. on a limited gold bullion standard, under which redemption in gold is restricted to dollars held by foreign central banks and licensed private users.

President Roosevelt devalues the dollar by increasing the price of gold to $35 per ounce.

1933: To alleviate the banking panic, President Franklin D. Roosevelt prohibits private holdings of all gold coins, bullion and certificates.

1931: Great Britain abandons the gold bullion standard.

1929: Great Depression, Wall Street Crash.

1925: Great Britain returns to a gold bullion standard, with currency redeemable for 400-ounce gold bullion bars but no circulation of gold coins.

1914-1919: A strict gold standard is suspended by several countries, including United States and Great Britain during World War I.

1913: Federal Reserve Act specifies that Federal Reserve Notes be backed 40 percent in gold.

1900: The Gold Standard Act places the United States officially on the gold standard, committing the United States to maintain a fixed exchange rate in relation to other countries on the gold standard. This lasted till 1919, when World War I forced both the United States and Britain to suspend it.

1873: As a result of ongoing revisions to minting and coinage laws, silver is eliminated as a standard of value and the United States goes on an unofficial gold standard.

1848: California Gold Rush triggered when John Marshall found flakes of gold while building a sawmill.

1837: The weight of gold in the U.S. dollar is lessened to 23.22 grains so that one fine troy ounce of gold is valued at

1817: Great Britain introduces the sovereign, a small gold coin valued at one pound sterling

1816: Great Britain officially ties the pound to a specific quantity of gold at which British currency is convertible.

1804-1828: North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia for currency.

1803: Gold is discovered at Little Meadow Creek, North Carolina, sparking the first U.S. gold rush.

1799: A 17-pound gold nugget is found in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, the first documented gold discovery in United States.

1792: The Coinage Act places the United States on a bimetallic silver-gold standard and defines the U.S. dollar as equivalent to 24.75 grains of fine gold and 371.25 grains of fine silver.

1787: First U.S. gold coin is struck by Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith

1700: Gold was discovered in Brazil, which became the largest producer of gold by 1720, with nearly two-thirds of the world’s output.

Isaac Newton, as Master of the Mint, fixes the price of gold in England at 84 shillings, 11.5 pence per troy ounce. The Royal Commission, comprising of Newton, John Locke and Lord Somers recommends a recall of all old currency, issuance of new specie with gold/silver ratio of 16-to-1.

The gold price thus established for over 200 years

1377: England shifts to a monetary system based on gold and silver

1284: England issues its first major gold coin, the florin. This was followed shortly by the noble and later by the angel, crown and guinea.

1284: Venice introduces the gold ducat, which soon becomes the most popular coin in the world and remains so for more than five centuries.

1066 A.D: With the Norman Conquest, a metallic currency standard is finally re-established in England with the introduction of a system of pounds, shillings and pence. The pound is literally a pound of sterling silver.

50 BCE: Romans began issuing a gold coin called the aureus.

560: The first coins made purely from gold are minted in Lydia, a kingdom of Asia Minor.

1091: Little squares of gold are legalized in China as a form of money

1500: Gold became recognized as a standard medium of exchange for international trade as the immense gold-bearing regions of Nubia made Egypt a wealthy nation. Ancient Egypt left behind a rich legacy of gold.

Sources: National Mining Association and World Gold Council

James West

Editor and Publisher

James West founded Midas Letter in 2008 and has since been covering the best of Canadian and US small cap companies. He covers global economics, monetary policy, geopolitical evolution, political corruption, commodities, cannabis and cryptocurrencies. As an active market participant, James is not a journalist and is invariably discussing markets.
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Midas Letter is provided as a source of information only, and is in no way to be construed as investment advice. James West, the author and publisher of the Midas Letter, is not authorized to provide investor advice, and provides this information only to readers who are interested in knowing what he is investing in and how he reaches such decisions.

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1900 — 1950

Colt placed a Browning-designed 38 caliber recoil-operated semi-automatic pistol on the market. It was the first semi-automatic pistol in the United States.

Feb. 8, 1900
The first of four patents were filed on the revolutionary autoloading shotgun. It would be manufactured by Fabrique Nationale in 1903 and by Remington Arms Company in 1905.

Oct. 6, 1900
The first successful autoloading high-power rifle received Patent No. 659,786. U.S. manufacturing and sales rights were granted to Remington Arms Company, and the rifle first appeared in 1906 as the Model 8.

July 16, 1901
Browning submitted a blowback operated 32 caliber semi-automatic pistol to Colt, who immediately accepted it. The marketing agreement stipulated that the pistol would be priced low enough to compete with the revolvers of the period.

Jan., 1902
In a disagreement about the public acceptability of the autoloading shotgun, John Browning severed his nineteen year relationship with T.G. Bennett of Winchester.

Jan. 8, 1902
An appointment was made to show the new shotgun to Mr. Marcellus Hartley of Remington. This meeting was cancelled by Mr. Hartley's untimely death that afternoon.

Feb., 1902
With his autoloading shotgun securely tucked under his arm, John Browning embarked on his first ocean voyage. He would offer the new shotgun to Fabrique Nationale.

Mar. 24, 1902
A contract was signed granting FN exclusive world rights to manufacture and sell the autoloading shotgun.

July 10, 1903
Patent application was filed on a pump action shotgun that would become the Stevens Model 520.

Summer, 1903
At the request of FN, Browning developed a 9mm military semi-automatic pistol.

In the face of restrictive tariffs, FN agreed to cede to Remington the rights to manufacture and sell the autoloading shotgun in the United States.

June 21, 1909
The application for a patent on a 25 caliber semi-automatic pistol was filed. It has been manufactured and sold by both FN and Colt. It was part of the Browning Arms Company line from 1955 to 1969.

Feb. 17, 1910
Patents were filed on a 45 caliber semi-automatic pistol. It served as the official United States military sidearm for almost 75 years.

Nov. 26, 1913
Filed patent on a pump shotgun that would be marketed as the Remington Model 17. It was John M. Browning's last repeater-type shotgun.

Jan. 6, 1914
Patents were granted and production began on a semi-automatic 22 caliber rifle. Remington also produced this rifle as the Model 24.

Feb. 27, 1917
First public demonstration on the Browning 30 caliber Heavy Machine Gun at Congress Heights, Washington, D.C.

July, 1917
Began work on the 50 caliber Water Cooled Machine Gun. Completed too late for World War I, this military weapon played a prominent role in World War II and Korea.

Aug. 1, 1917
Application for patent filed on the Browning Automatic Rifle. The B.A.R. first saw combat in 1918.

July 26, 1919
Patent application filed on a 22 pump action rifle that would be produced exclusively by Fabrique Nationale.

Early 1921
John M. Browning began work on his first 37mm Aircraft Cannon.

Oct. 15, 1923
The first of two patents were filed on the Superposed Over/Under shotgun.

June 28, 1923
Patent application was filed on a 9mm short-recoil, locked-breech, exposed-hammer semi-automatic pistol. This was John M. Browning's last pistol development.

Nov. 26, 1926
John Moses Browning died of heart failure at Liege, Belgium. The great gunmaker had laid down his tools.

Sept., 1927
J.M. & M.S. Browning Company was incorporated in Utah with the Browning Arms Company as a subsidiary.

St. Louis distribution center and sales organization established. Ogden remained the headquarters, directing all activities.

The Superposed shotgun was introduced into the Browning Arms Company line.

Auto-5 "Sweet Sixteen" was introduced.

After the German occupation put a stop to Belgian production, Remington made an American-Made Auto-5 for Browning. This was their Model 11, but included the magazine cut-off, which was not a part of the Model 11. This was called the American Browning.

Remington resumed making the American-Made Auto-5 for Browning until the discontinued production of the Model 11 to introduce their new 11-49 autoloader.

FN resumes Auto-5 production.

June, 1948
Light 12 Auto-5 introduced, 12 gauge Superposed re-introduced to the American market.

New 20 gauge Superposed introduced.

For an updated version of this document, see the &#8220-paged&#8221- Prediction Markets Timeline.

CHRONOLOGY &amp- HISTORY: Prediction Markets Timeline

Feel free to post a comment or contact me, and I&#8217-ll correct or add a factoid. Thanks.

#1. Historical Prediction Markets

According to Paul Rhode and Koleman Strumpf, prediction markets almost never got it wrong forecasting the 19 presidential elections that took place from 1868 to 1940. (PDF)

#2. The three Iowa Electronic Markets founders (Robert Forsythe, Forrest Nelson and George Neumann)

&#8220-We ran our first market in 1988. We didn’t have regulatory approval at that point so we were restricted solely to the University of Iowa community. We had under 200 traders and under $5,000.&#8221- &#8211- [Robert Forsythe – PDF file]

– [CFTC’s no-action letter to the IEM – 1992 – PDF file]

– [CFTC’s no-action letter to the IEM – 1993 – PDF file]

#3. Robin Hanson

a) Robin Hanson set up and ran a rudimentary prediction exchange (a market board, PPT file) in January 24, 1989. The outcome to predict was the name of the winner of a Poker party.

b) Until evidence of the contrary, it seems that Robin Hanson was the first to set up and run a corporate prediction exchange &#8212-at Xanadu, Inc., in April 1989. See: A 1990 Corporate Prediction Market + Anonymity is important for employees trading on internal prediction markets.

Robin Hanson: &#8220-I started a market at Xanadu on cold fusion in April 1989. In May 1990, I started a market there on whether their product would be delivered before Deng died.&#8221-

c) Until evidence of the contrary, it seems that Robin Hanson was the first to set up and run a bunch of imagination-based prediction markets. See the Murder Mystery Evening described by Barney Pell &#8212-circa June 8, 1989.

d) Until evidence of the contrary, it seems that Robin Hanson was the first to write a paper on prediction markets created and existing primarily because of the information in their prices (as opposed to markets created primarily for speculation and hedging).

e) Robin Hanson godfathered the Foresight Exchange (created in 1994) and NewsFutures (created in 2000).

f) Robin Hanson invented the concepts of decision markets (PDF) and decision-aid markets.

g) Robin Hanson invented a new market design (for the 2000-2003&#8242-s Policy Analysis Market), the Market Scoring Rules, a mix between CDA and Scoring Rules &#8212-now in use for most enterprise prediction markets and public, play-money prediction exchanges. Note that MSR is mainly used in a one-dimension version, but many researchers are interested in its combinatorial version.

#4. Other Pioneering Public Prediction Exchanges (Betting Exchanges, Event Derivative Exchanges) and Inventors/Innovators/Entrepreneurs

a) The Foresight Exchange was founded on September 22, 1994 by Ken Kittlitz, Sean Morgan, Mark James, Greg James, David McFadzean and Duane Hewitt. The Foresight Exchange is a play-money prediction exchange (betting exchange) managed by an open group of volunteers. It pioneered user-created and user-managed , play-money prediction markets. Any person can join the Foresight Exchange and interact with the rest of the Web-based organization. An independent judge (independent from the owner of the claim) should be appointed among the volunteers. [Thus, it’s not “DYI prediction markets”.]

c) BetFair was founded in 1999 by Andrew Black and Edward Wray, and was launched in England in June 2000. As of today, BetFair is the world&#8217-s biggest prediction exchange (betting exchange, event derivative exchange).

d) NewsFutures was founded in March 2000 and launched in September 2000 in France and in April 2001 in the US by Emile Servan-Shreiber and Maurice Balick. See: NewsFutures Timeline. NewsFutures was the first exchange to let people buy or sell contracts for each side of a binary-outcome event. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the need for &#8220-shorting&#8221-, a notion that tends to confuse novice traders. NewsFutures later extend that approach to deal with n-ary outcome events while implementing automatic arbitrage.

e) TradeSports was launched in Ireland in 2002 by John Delaney. InTrade was later purchased and became a non-sports prediction exchange (betting exchange). As of today, InTrade is the biggest betting exchange on the North-American market &#8212-where betting exchanges are still illegal. As for TradeSports, it closed at the end of 2008, alas.

#5. The Policy Analysis Market Brouhaha

a) Robin Hanson was the main economist behind the 2000–2003 US DoD&#8217-s DARPA&#8217-s IAO&#8217-s FutureMAP–Policy Analysis Market project. (For this project, Robin Hanson invented a new market design, the Market Scoring Rules.) On July 28, 2003, two Democratic US Senators called for the termination of PAM, the the big media gave airtime to their arguments, and the US DOD quickly ended the IAO&#8217-s FutureMAP program.

b) The second branch of the 2000–2003 US DoD&#8217-s DARPA&#8217-s IAO&#8217-s FutureMAP program was handled by the Iowa Electronic Markets and was intended to predict the SARS pandemic. (This project later gave birth to IEM&#8217-s Influenza Prediction Market.)

#6. James Surowiecki&#8217-s The Wisdom Of Crowds

#7. Recent Public Prediction Exchanges (Betting Exchanges, Event Derivative Exchanges) and Inventors/Innovators/Entrepreneurs

a) US-based and US-regulated HedgeStreet was launched in 2004 by John Nafeh, Russell Andersson, and Ursula Burger. A designated contract market (DCM) and a registered derivatives clearing organization (DCO), HedgeStreet is subject to regulatory oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). In November 2006, IG Group bought HedgeStreet for $6 million.

b) Inkling Markets was launched in March 2006 and co-pioneered (with CrowdIQ, which later bellied up) the concept of DIY, play-money prediction markets.

c) In September 2006, TradeSports-InTrade was the first prediction exchange (betting exchange, event futures exchange) to apply Chris Masse&#8217-s concept of X Groups. See: TradeSports-InTrade prediction markets on Bush approval ratings.

d) HubDub was launched in early 2008 and is the second most popular play-money prediction exchange, behind HSX.

#8. Enterprise Prediction Markets

a) Until evidence of the contrary, it seems that Robin Hanson was the first to set up and run a corporate prediction exchange &#8212-at Xanadu, Inc., in April 1989. See: A 1990 Corporate Prediction Market + Anonymity is important for employees trading on internal prediction markets.

b) In the 1996&#8211-1999 period, HP ran a series of internal prediction markets to forecast the sales of its printers.

c) Eli Lilly sponsored 10 public, industry-level prediction markets in April 2003 (on the NewsFutures prediction exchange).

d) Eli Lilly began using internal prediction markets in February 2004 (powered by NewsFutures).

f) Since then, many companies selling software services for enterprise prediction markets have been created.

#9. Disputes Between Traders And Exchanges

a) The scandal of the North Korean Missile prediction market that erupted in July 2006 is, as of today, the biggest scandal that rocked the field of prediction markets.

Community Reviews

I feel like I need to preface this with the fact that I would never have read this book, were it not for a work assignment (I read a pre-release uncorrected proof, to be clear). But I&aposm really glad I was "forced" to, as I found it a very interesting overview of a few points in history I&aposd never thought about before -- Northern Ontario&aposs gold rush in particular -- as well as a thoughtfully constructed think-piece about the actions of the very rich, WWII, and racial tensions in British colonies, a I feel like I need to preface this with the fact that I would never have read this book, were it not for a work assignment (I read a pre-release uncorrected proof, to be clear). But I'm really glad I was "forced" to, as I found it a very interesting overview of a few points in history I'd never thought about before -- Northern Ontario's gold rush in particular -- as well as a thoughtfully constructed think-piece about the actions of the very rich, WWII, and racial tensions in British colonies, all told through the profile of one man who got lucky and struck gold.

Part of the reason why I'd never have selected the book myself is that it is the biography of a rich white man from history, and I think North American history in general is made up of a lot of those. The perspective doesn't interest me anymore. But Gray successfully argues through this book that the man, Harry Oakes, is worth getting to know better outside of the sensationalized story of his murder. And after finishing this book, I'd agree. And that's less because of the man himself -- he was actually rather unpleasant -- but because he crossed paths with so many interesting points in history. He worked like crazy until the boom in gold mining in the Kirkland Lake area made him a millionaire. He developed Niagara Falls. He escaped tax paying by going to the Bahamas, and perhaps inadvertently took the side of the colonized black Bahamians by giving them work and paying them slightly more than the normal salary. He rubbed shoulders with the Duke of Windsor and Wallis Simpson at a time they were exiled from Britain. His best friend essentially made the Bahamas the destination it became. There are a lot of interesting touch points here -- and then there's the murder.

I wouldn't necessarily recommend the book for the murder mystery, though Gray certainly spends a lot of time on that. She makes it very clear that her real purpose is to contextualize Oakes in a way no one has never really done before. And I'm glad she did, because I learned a lot while breezing through her incredibly thorough and yet very easy-reading style. . more

Murdered Midas: A Millionaire, His Gold Mine, and a Strange Death on an Island Paradise by Charlotte Gray | Sep 24 2019 HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. 319 pages

Both Kirkland Lake and the Bahamas have been in the news in 2019. Kirkland Lake for the celebration of its 100th anniversary and the Bahamas due to Hurricane Dorian that caused catastrophic damage to the island and its residents. However historically, the most famous event involving both communities was the murder of Sir Harry Oakes. Inde Murdered Midas: A Millionaire, His Gold Mine, and a Strange Death on an Island Paradise by Charlotte Gray | Sep 24 2019 HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. 319 pages

Both Kirkland Lake and the Bahamas have been in the news in 2019. Kirkland Lake for the celebration of its 100th anniversary and the Bahamas due to Hurricane Dorian that caused catastrophic damage to the island and its residents. However historically, the most famous event involving both communities was the murder of Sir Harry Oakes. Indeed, it was the crime of the last century.

The mystery surrounding the death of the mining tycoon has attracted numerous writers. “A gold mine. A millionaire. An island paradise. An unsolved murder. A missing fortune” . British Royalty, Nazi connections. The list of intrigues goes on. A story often written but now as only Charlotte Gray can tell it. Her formidable curiosity, research and story telling have resulted in a balanced consideration of the tragedy and the life of Sir Harry.

In the book overview by HarperCollins: “on an island paradise in 1943, Sir Harry Oakes, gold mining tycoon, philanthropist and richest man in the Empire, was murdered. The news of his death surged across the English-speaking world, from London, the Imperial centre, to the remote Canadian mining town of Kirkland Lake, in the Northern Ontario bush.

The layers of mystery deepened as the involvement of Oakes' son-in-law, Count Alfred de Marigny, came quickly to be questioned, as did the odd machinations of the Governor of the Bahamas, the former King Edward VIII. Despite a sensational trial, no murderer was ever convicted. Rumours were unrelenting about Oakes' missing fortune, and fascination with the Oakes story has persisted for decades.

Award-winning biographer and popular historian Charlotte Gray explores, for the first time, the life of the man behind the scandal, a man who was both reviled and admired - from his early, hardscrabble days of mining exploration, to his explosion of wealth, to his grandiose gestures of philanthropy. Gray brings fresh eyes to the bungled investigation and shocking trial in the remote colonial island streets, proposing an overlooked suspect in this long cold case. Murdered Midas is the story of the man behind the newspaper headlines, who, despite his wealth and position, was never able to have justice.”

Some of the golden historical tidbits include: in 1576, Martin Frobisher while looking for the Northwest Passage sent a ship load of rocks back to England. It turned out to be iron pyrites or fools gold. In 1686, the Chevalier de Troyes leading a military expedition to James Bay, sent rocks from Lake Temiskaming back to Quebec City, where they went unnoticed. By the late 1880's the Wright silver-lead mine had been established on the site. In 1883, while the CPR was being constructed, nickel was discovered in Sudbury. However it wasn't until the Temiskaming and Northern Railway began pushing north, the silver and then gold mining camps began. The Cobalt rush in 1903, Larder Lake in 1906, followed by Porcupine in 1909 and Kirkland Lake, east of Swastika where in 1911, the year an impoverished American prospector, Harry Oakes stakes his first claims.

Most writers, including Charlotte Gray deal with Harrys abrasive character and mercurial temperament as the psychology of a lonely prospector gone bushed. Another explanation might be the exposure to dry mineral dust. Although he didn't work underground until driving his first shaft, Oakes put in long hours over many years chiseling for surface samples, hand steeling to get further down and eventually machine drilling to get the Toburn and Lake Shore Mines going. Miners often display early symptoms of dementia and this might have also affected the later Sir Harry. Certainly he had difficulties relating to women but he did get along well with the shrewd, tough minded Rosa Brown.

Rosa was a Jewish Hungarian emigre who ran a boarding house, bakery and laundry. She enrobed herself in all all that was British Royalty including the Union Jack and walked, followed by her pack of loyal dogs. Another character was the British socialite Unity Valkyrie Mitford. A rabid anti-Semite and the daughter of Baron David Freeman-Mitford Redesdale who had a mining claim between Swastika and Kirkland Lake where he spent many summers and Unity would visit. Unity had a relationship with Adolf Hitler and was rumoured to be the mother of his love child. There was speculation that NAZI swastika was symbolized after a good luck cross charm that she would wear.

The greater story of the women of Kirkland Lake has largely gone untold. High enlistment rates of miners during two world wars and the death and maiming underground along with the indiscriminate firing of men placed a huge burden on the women, some sexually exploited when they begged support for their families. The outrage culminated in the bitter miners strike of 1941-42 where two thousands women, supported the miners by marching in the dead cold of winter for union recognition, the right to collectively bargain and better working conditions. Jennifer Wynn Weber in her dramatic play published as a book in 2019 about the “Kirkland Lake gals” who helped organize and supported the strike. With Glowing hearts is the story of how ordinary women worked together to change the world (and did).

One story not in this book is about Harrys order to his men. Coming off shift from underground they were lined up and humiliated by having to pee in buckets. Harry Oakes had installed a copper roof on the “Chateau”, the giant log building that is now the Kirkland Lake Museum of Northern History. To turn the copper green, the acidic miners' urine was poured over the copper. Remember, this was at a time when work horse stables were nearby.

While Grey is balanced in her treatment of the character of Sir Harry Oakes, to fully understand the broader enmity of the miners towards the mine operators, a good reference is a book entitled, Remember Kirkland Lake, The Gold Miners Strike of 1941-42 by Laurel Seton McDowell,1983. Unsafe working conditions, especially underground where there was considerable death and injury, low pay, insecure tenure and rising living costs needed addressing. The average miner in the camp was forced to live “too close to the line” and was frequently in default of unpaid bills resulting in court actions for debt. Dissatisfaction was rampant. “On the evening of 18th November, 1941, the night shift in eight of the mines failed to report for work. the (Toronto) Star reported that 3850 of 4300 workers had struck”.

Unable to find a smoking gun pointing to who killed Sir Harry, suspicion returns to those who had a motive. His son-in-law Alfred de Marigny was tried and found not guilty. Harold Christie, the real estate agent who transformed the shabby colony into a mecca for the super rich had the most to lose if Oakes abandoned the Bahamas. Also, Sir Harry had a lot of enemies from the past who might have made him a final visit of retribution. Unfortunately, the botched investigation and the careless destruction of the crime scene ruined the chances of finding the real culprit. While Charlotte Gray has left no leaf upturned who knows what a future writer might uncover. Likely, the last word on the murder of Sir Harry Oakes is yet to come.

The author, in the spirit of a true detective, follows the money. “There was a complicated web of connections between the Duke of Windsor, Wenner-Grenn (A Swedish-German financier), Christie (Bahamian real estate promoter), and Oakes, plus General Camacho, (brother of the President of Mexico) would lead to speculation about illicit transfers of currency and gold designed to put them beyond reach of the British Government.” What happened to Oakes fortune, a considerable amount had disappeared. Did it go into a bank set up in Mexico? Did it continue to finance the NAZI network after the war?

If Charlotte Gray visits Kirkland Lake again she will be surprised to see a new head-frame by the highway on the west side of town. She was a little premature in predicting the demise of the community. At the 100th Anniversary parade young families lined the Government Road. New “shacks” (homes) have been built and some of the miners are beginning to stay in town rather than the long travel from larger communities. Like Harry Oakes going against conventional wisdom mining out under the lake, Kirkland Lake Gold is mining to the south of the town (south complex). The company has large proven reserves and is acquiring new properties. It has gone from being a junior to mid sized mining company with production nearing 1,000,000 ounces yearly, between their Canadian and Australian mines. The old gold town ain't dead yet.

Gray is scrupulous in her research and has included precise end notes and references to newspaper articles, not as footnotes at the bottom of the book pages but separately on her website (Charlottetown Gray)

The book is a great read and of appeal to an international audience.

The reviewer, Paul Filteau is a native of Kirkland Lake who now lives in Thunder Bay, Ontario. He writes on history and current issues relating to Northern Ontario. He was a regular contributor to the unfortunately defunct, High grader Magazine. He authored 2019 articles on Sir Harry Oakes, as well as, Children of the Slimes, for the 100th Centennial Edition, Celebrating Kirkland Lake, As Good As Gold . more

Scout 80 Campermobile

Camp culture in the 1950s and early 󈨀s was huge. The Scout 80 helped foment the enthusiasm for the outdoors with its special Campermobile variant, released in 1963. Among the rarest variants out there, you’d be lucky to find one of these out there, and luckier still if it was in reputable shape. The quintessential 80s all-integrated camp vehicle was cutting edge for its time, with sleeping bunks that folded out of the sides, a built in dinette set, stand-up galley, and toilet. Due to the scarcity of orders, few were produced, and even fewer bought. Shoddy manufacturing led the Campermobile to be prone to falling apart in rough terrain, and little affection from the public for the design led to fewer than 100 being purchased.

Photo: New Legend 4ࡪ

Our Heritage

In 1888, physician and drug store proprietor Dr. Wallace C. Abbott began producing accurate, scientifically formulated medications with the goal of providing more effective therapies to patients and the physicians providing their care.

Under the pioneering leadership of Dr. Abbott, our company was among the founders of the scientific practice of pharmacy, expanding its business to meet rising global health needs by championing new areas of medical research. By continually entering new areas—both scientific and geographic—we've established a now long-standing tradition of helping people live healthier lives around the world.

Dr. Abbott’s spirit of entrepreneurship, innovation and caring lives on in our culture, our business and our contributions to medical science. Read below for historical moments that highlight our pursuit of the extraordinary throughout the years.

  • 1888: Production of “alkaloidal” medicine granules by Dr. Wallace C. Abbott, a 30-year-old practicing physician, begins in the rear of his People's Drug Store in Chicago. Remedies contain the active ingredients of plants and herbs. First-year total sales reach $2,000.
  • 1894: Incorporated as the Abbott Alkaloidal Company. Abbott is a medical publisher as well as a manufacturer.
  • 1907: Expansion outside the United States for the first time with an office in London, England.
  • 1916: Production of our first synthetic medicine, Chlorazene, a breakthrough antiseptic developed by British chemist Dr. Henry Dakin to treat wounded soldiers in World War I.
  • 1922: Development of Butyn by scientists Dr. Ernest Volwiler and Dr. Roger Adams, the first in a long line of breakthrough anesthetics to come from our company.
  • 1929: Initial public offering provides shares for the first time in the year of the stock market crash that began the Great Depression. While the timing seems inauspicious, our stock grows in value from that first day—and approximately 10,000 times over so far.
  • 1932: Expansion continues even at the height of the Great Depression thanks to our leadership in new fields such as vitamins and intravenous solutions. "Few of the leading industrial organizations of the country," notes Nation's Commerce magazine, "can show a sounder record for the past year than the Abbott Laboratories."
  • 1935: Introduction of Pentothal, which will be the world’s leading anesthetic for years to come and win our inventors, Dr. Volwiler and Dr. Donalee Tabern, induction into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame.
  • 1942: Abbott joins a consortium of pharmaceutical makers, at the behest of the U.S. Government, to ramp up production of penicillin for wartime use. Together we increase production more than 20,000%.
  • 1959: Adoption of our Abbott "A" logo, a classic of industrial design that remains the cornerstone of our visual identity to this day.
  • 1960: Reinvention in the 1960s under President George Cain is featured in the 2001 best-seller, Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap. and Others Don't. Author Jim Collins chose us as one of 11 companies, out of 1,435, that had the product, service, organizational and people quality to engender truly great performance.
  • 1964: Acquisition of M&R Dietetics, with its popular baby formula, Similac, makes us a leader in nutrition.
  • 1972: Introduction of the ABA-100 blood chemistry analyzer as well as Ausria, a breakthrough radioimmunoassay test for detecting serum hepatitis. This marks the beginning of our modern diagnostics business, in which we quickly became a world leader.
  • 1985: Approval of the first licensed test to identify the HIV virus in blood, helping to secure the safety of the blood supply. This is one of our greatest achievements and the first significant medical victory against what had, until then, seemed an unstoppable threat.
  • 1998: Introduction of Glucerna, a group of cereals, health shakes and snack bars formulated specifically for diabetics and others with dietary restrictions.
  • 2002: FDA approval of Humira, the first fully-human monoclonal antibody drug. It will go on to become the world's leading pharmaceutical product.
  • 2006: Launch of the Xience V drug-eluting stent. It goes on to become the market leader.
  • 2010: We continue our focus on globalism as we become the largest pharmaceutical company in India, the world's second-largest country by population.
  • 2013: Beginning of a new era for Abbott, as a more global, consumer-focused company than ever before, we created a new, Fortune 200 corporation, AbbVie, from our former proprietary pharmaceutical business.
  • 2014: Abbott establishes a strong new expression of its corporate identity with"Life. To The Fullest." The company promotes its identity more vigorously than ever before, advertising to consumer audiences around the world and becoming the sponsor of the Abbott World Marathon Majors, a series of the world’s most prominent races.
  • 2014: With the launch of its cutting-edge continuous glucose monitoring system, FreeStyle Libre, Abbott revolutionizes diabetes care by eliminating the need for routine fingersticks. 1
  • 2016: Abbott launches the first systems in its Alinity series, a family of diagnostics and informatics systems that represent a major leap forward in terms of reliability, cost, capacity, space efficiency, and ease of use. We are creating the future of diagnostic labs.
  • 2017: In its largest acquisition ever, Abbott acquires St. Jude Medical, adding breakthrough inventions and extensive expertise across the areas of cardiovascular and neuromodulation. Abbott now competes in nearly every area of cardiovascular health and holds the No. 1 or 2 positions in a variety of large, high-growth markets.
  • 2017: Abbott acquires Alere Inc., making Abbott the leader in point-of-care diagnostic technology filling out its array of diagnostics technologies. Abbott now holds the No. 1 position in rapid testing for cardiometabolic disease, infectious disease and in toxicology.
  • 2020: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Abbott quickly launches multiple new COVID-19 diagnostic tests, from assays that run on high-throughput instruments capable of handling large volumes of tests at once, to self-contained point-of-care devices that deliver reliable, on-the-spot results, fast. Employees work tirelessly to support communities in need and ensure continued access to medical devices, diagnostics, medicines and nutrition products without disruption.

You can learn more about our rich history in "A Promise for Life: The Story of Abbott." Featuring hundreds of historical images and over 400 pages, this comprehensive history draws on materials from our extensive archives, vintage interviews with key Abbott people and information in the public record to create a detailed portrait of our remarkable company and the accomplishments we've achieved. Click here to download a PDF of our e-book.

For more than 130 years, we've adapted to an increasingly complex healthcare environment by keeping our focus where it belongs—on helping people achieve their best possible health, in all stages of life, around the world. And that’s a goal we'll continue to pursue far into the future.

1 Fingersticks are required for treatment decisions when you see Check Blood Glucose symbol, when symptoms do not match system readings, when you suspect readings may be inaccurate, or when you experience symptoms that may be due to high or low blood glucose.

The Evolution Of Car Suspension

Have you wondered how suspension for cars came to life? The suspension system in your cars allows you to have a comfortable drive, and if we didn’t use them, we would all be wearing crash helmets while driving. This begs the question, how did the system come into effect in the first place? If you’re interested in the history of this incredible technology, here’s the answer below!

Let’s go back to 1904 and meet a young man by the name of William Brush, who, when cruising through the countryside, decided to take a corner a bit too fast, causing the front wheel to skitter on a dirt shoulder and slam into a deep rut. This caused the wheel to shake violently, sending shock waves throughout the front of the car and resulted in William ending upside down in cow pasture.

The car belonged to his brother Alanson, who wasn’t exactly charmed to hear about what had happened to his vehicle, but the whole accident did triggered a thought with Alanson, because he was trying to design a new car at the time.

By 1906, Alanson and William unveiled the Brush Two-Seat Runabout, a car featuring two innovations that had never been seen in a car at the time – front coil springs and shock absorbers mounted on a flexible hickory axle. At the time this was seen as very unusual, as most car manufacturers were still using leaf springs, since they were cheaper and could be reshaped to support different vehicle weights.

Coil springs then went on a hiatus for 25 years before General Motors, in 1934, reintroduced the coil spring front suspension. Their unique feature was that each wheel now sprung independently from each other, which lessened the effect of spring bounce. Since then, most car manufacturers switch the type of coils – leaf vs coil – depending on the weight of the car.

The problems that arose from coiled suspension was that when made too stiff, the ride was extremely uncomfortable, since the coils respond quickly to large bumps in the road. When the coils were made more flexible, the driver and passengers experienced a constant state of motion.

No situation was ideal here, but then came along shock absorbers to save the day and the blend of spring coils with shock absorbers created the template for the modern car suspensions of today.

If you want to find out more about your car’s suspension system, contact us today!

Abilities [ edit | edit source ]

Misfortune Hand [ edit | edit source ]

It can cause extreme misfortune to anyone within the user's vicinity and cause financial crisis to the point where even rich people can lose all their wealth instantly. It can also cause people to suffer from severe physical and mental conditions such as losing their teeth. It can also destroy relics within the user's vicinity and nullify the abilities of any relic within the user's vicinity. This ability was dependent on the user's happiness until the risk was completely satisfied but can still become berserk on the user's happiest and saddest days like fire touching oil.

Wealth Hand [ edit | edit source ]

It can create a variety of money, gold, luxury items, and expensive wine. It can also maximize luck and fortune for someone and ensure that the Heungbu and Nolbu's Gourd would only produce powerful or useful A rank and S rank relics and not summon a powerful disaster. This ability was unlocked after Seo Joo-Heon and Irene Holton acquired and dominated the other half of the relic but remained locked until they completely satisfy the risk which was accomplished after they slept together.

Synergy with Tutankhamun's Mask [ edit | edit source ]

It can amplify the range and powers of misfortune and destitution.

Synergy with Daji's Relic [ edit | edit source ]

It can cause people to fall for the user and obey his or her every command.

"Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight." (The Book of 2 Kings)

Isa 10:5-7 "Woe to Assyria, the rod of My anger And the staff in whose hand is My indignation. I will send him against an ungodly nation, And against the people of My wrath I will give him charge, To seize the spoil, to take the prey, And to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Yet he does not mean so, Nor does his heart think so But it is in his heart to destroy, And cut off not a few nations."

The Northern Kingdom consisted of 10 of the tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin). It lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 722 BC. Its capital was Samaria. Every king of Israel was evil. In the northern kingdom there were 9 dynasties (family lines of kings) and 19 kings in all. An average of 11 years to a reign. 8 of these kings met death by violence.

The epitaph written over every one of its kings was:

I King 15:34 "and he did evil in the sight of the LORD, and walked in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin by which he had made Israel to sin."

It was king Ahab who introduced Baal worship to them.

I King 16:30-33 "Now Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD, more than all who were before him. And it came to pass, as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took as wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians and he went and served Baal and worshiped him. Then he set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal, which he had built in Samaria. And Ahab made a wooden image. Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him."

The last king was Hoshea (2 Ki 17). The petty wars of the past, wars with Syria and Edom, Ammon and Philistia, were now to give way to war on an ominous new scale. A world empire was being gathered into the ruthless hands of the Assyrians. The ruthless and cruel Assyrians (under Sargon II) besieged Samaria for 3 years and finally it fell, Israel was doomed. The Assyrians hauled them away into captivity (722 BC).

But the Lord always reminded them of why judgment came:

II Ki 17:7-23 "For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt and they had feared other gods, and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made.

Also the children of Israel secretly did against the LORD their God things that were not right, and they built for themselves high places in all their cities, from watchtower to fortified city. They set up for themselves sacred pillars and wooden images on every high hill and under every green tree. There they burned incense on all the high places, like the nations whom the LORD had carried away before them and they did wicked things to provoke the LORD to anger, for they served idols, of which the LORD had said to them, "You shall not do this thing."

Yet the LORD testified against Israel and against Judah, by all of His prophets, every seer, saying, "Turn from your evil ways, and keep My commandments and My statutes, according to all the law which I commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you by My servants the prophets." Nevertheless they would not hear, but stiffened their necks, like the necks of their fathers, who did not believe in the LORD their God. And they rejected His statutes and His covenant that He had made with their fathers, and His testimonies which He had testified against them they followed idols, became idolaters, and went after the nations who were all around them, concerning whom the LORD had charged them that they should not do like them.

So they left all the commandments of the LORD their God, made for themselves a molded image and two calves, made a wooden image and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Baal. And they caused their sons and daughters to pass through the fire, practiced witchcraft and soothsaying, and sold themselves to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to provoke Him to anger.

Therefore the LORD was very angry with Israel, and removed them from His sight there was none left but the tribe of Judah alone. . And the LORD rejected all the descendants of Israel, afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of plunderers, until He had cast them from His sight. For He tore Israel from the house of David, and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. Then Jeroboam drove Israel from following the LORD, and made them commit a great sin. For the children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did they did not depart from them, until the LORD removed Israel out of His sight, as He had said by all His servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away from their own land to Assyria, as it is to this day."

Watch the video: Midas - nevim brácho w. Lidas


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