George Washington SLP-624 - History

George Washington SLP-624 - History


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George Washington

George Washington wee born 22 February 1732 In Wetmoreland County, VA. He was commissioned in the Virginia Militia in 1753, rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel the next year, and fought brilliantly in the French and Indian War. Entering the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1759, Washington was an early advocate of independence. In 1775 he was appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, and demonstrated a profound appreciation of sea power as well as great military genius. After years of hardship and arduous struggle, he finally won a decisive victory at Yorktown. In directing Allied movements during this campaign, one of the great strategic operations of our history, Washington brilliantly employed the French Navy to cut off Lord Cornwallis from help by sea. He had sought a decisive combined operation like this for years, for he wrote "In any operations, and under all circumstances a decisive Naval superiority is to be considered as a fundamental principle and the focus upon which every hope of success must ultimately depend."

The Treaty of Paris recognized American independence 20 January 1783. After attending the Annapolis Convention of 1786 and presiding over the Continental Convention of 1787, Washington was unanimously elected first President under the new Constitution and inaugurated 30 April 1789. His two terms in office laid the foundations for strong government under the Constitution. Returning to his home at Mount Vernon in 1797, Washington was recalled briefly to command the American army when war with France threatened in 1798. He died at Mount Vernon 14 December 1799.

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(Sip: t. 624; 1. 108'; b. 32'6f"; dph. 14'; cpl. 220; a. 24
9-pdrs.; 8 6-pdrs. )

The first George Washington was built as a merchant vessel at Providence, RI., in 1793; purchased by the Congress at Providence 12 October 1798 from John Brown and John Francis for use in the developing undeclared war with France, and converted to a warship under the supervision of Captain Silas Talbot, Captain Patrick Fletcher in command.

George Washington proceeded in early December to Dominica, West Indies, to join Commodore Barry's squadron for the protection of American commercial interests in the area. She rendezvoused with Barry in United States at sea 29 December and arrived Dominica next day. For the next months she, convoyed American ships in the West Indies, sailing from St. Christopher's Island to Tobago.During this time, in company with revenue cutter Pickering, she recaptured two American ships from the French —brig Fair American 29 April 1799, and schooner Francis 1 May 1799.

The ship departed the Caribbean in mid-1799, arriving Newport, R.I., 12 June 1799, and after a short stay sailed again 2 July. On this cruise she searched the coast for French privateers as far south as Charleston, and then took station off Santo Domingo protecting American commerce. George Washington returned to the United States in October 1799 for extensive repairs.

George Washington was taken to Philadelphia in April 1800 and there prepared for sea under the command of Captain William Bainbridge. Lacking a strong Navy the United States accepted the questionable alternative of trying to protect its commerce from the Barbary pirates with tribute. Bainbridge sailed with a load of stores and timber for the Dey of Algiers 8 August. George Washington arrived safely in September, the first American warship to enter the Mediterranean. Unhappily Bainbridge had to accede to threats and carry the Dey’s presents to the Sultan at Constantinople. He protested vigorously; but, in the face of concentrated guns ashore and the threat of retaliation on American shipping he departed 20 October. George Washington returned to Algiers 21 January 1801, and after a visit to Alicant, France, arrived back in the United States 19 April 1801.

The ship underwent repairs and was again fitted to carry~stores and timber to Algiers. Manned with only a partial crew, she sailed 20 July 1801 and arrived Algiers via Malaga, Spain, 5 October 1801. After calling at Italian and French ports she returned to Philadelphia about 15 April 1802. George Washington was sold in May 1802 by the Philadelphia Navy Agent, George Harrison.


George Washington SLP-624 - History

At the close of the Revolutionary War in America, a perilous moment in the life of the fledgling American republic occurred as officers of the Continental Army met in Newburgh, New York, to discuss grievances and consider a possible insurrection against the rule of Congress.

They were angry over the failure of Congress to honor its promises to the army regarding salary, bounties and life pensions. The officers had heard from Philadelphia that the American government was going broke and that they might not be compensated at all.

On March 10, 1783, an anonymous letter was circulated among the officers of General Washington's main camp at Newburgh. It addressed those complaints and called for an unauthorized meeting of officers to be held the next day to consider possible military solutions to the problems of the civilian government and its financial woes.

General Washington stopped that meeting from happening by forbidding the officers to meet at the unauthorized meeting. Instead, he suggested they meet a few days later, on March 15th, at the regular meeting of his officers.

Meanwhile, another anonymous letter was circulated, this time suggesting Washington himself was sympathetic to the claims of the malcontent officers.

And so, on March 15, 1783, Washington's officers gathered in a church building in Newburgh, effectively holding the fate of America in their hands.

Unexpectedly, General Washington himself showed up. He was not entirely welcomed by his men, but nevertheless, personally addressed them.

Gentlemen:
By an anonymous summons, an attempt has been made to convene you together how inconsistent with the rules of propriety, how unmilitary, and how subversive of all order and discipline, let the good sense of the army decide.

Thus much, gentlemen, I have thought it incumbent on me to observe to you, to show upon what principles I opposed the irregular and hasty meeting which was proposed to have been held on Tuesday last - and not because I wanted a disposition to give you every opportunity consistent with your own honor, and the dignity of the army, to make known your grievances. If my conduct heretofore has not evinced to you that I have been a faithful friend to the army, my declaration of it at this time would be equally unavailing and improper. But as I was among the first who embarked in the cause of our common country. As I have never left your side one moment, but when called from you on public duty. As I have been the constant companion and witness of your distresses, and not among the last to feel and acknowledge your merits. As I have ever considered my own military reputation as inseparably connected with that of the army. As my heart has ever expanded with joy, when I have heard its praises, and my indignation has arisen, when the mouth of detraction has been opened against it, it can scarcely be supposed, at this late stage of the war, that I am indifferent to its interests.

But how are they to be promoted? The way is plain, says the anonymous addresser. If war continues, remove into the unsettled country, there establish yourselves, and leave an ungrateful country to defend itself. But who are they to defend? Our wives, our children, our farms, and other property which we leave behind us. Or, in this state of hostile separation, are we to take the two first (the latter cannot be removed) to perish in a wilderness, with hunger, cold, and nakedness? If peace takes place, never sheathe your swords, says he, until you have obtained full and ample justice this dreadful alternative, of either deserting our country in the extremest hour of her distress or turning our arms against it (which is the apparent object, unless Congress can be compelled into instant compliance), has something so shocking in it that humanity revolts at the idea. My God! What can this writer have in view, by recommending such measures? Can he be a friend to the army? Can he be a friend to this country? Rather, is he not an insidious foe? Some emissary, perhaps, from New York, plotting the ruin of both, by sowing the seeds of discord and separation between the civil and military powers of the continent? And what a compliment does he pay to our understandings when he recommends measures in either alternative, impracticable in their nature?

I cannot, in justice to my own belief, and what I have great reason to conceive is the intention of Congress, conclude this address, without giving it as my decided opinion, that that honorable body entertain exalted sentiments of the services of the army and, from a full conviction of its merits and sufferings, will do it complete justice. That their endeavors to discover and establish funds for this purpose have been unwearied, and will not cease till they have succeeded, I have not a doubt. But, like all other large bodies, where there is a variety of different interests to reconcile, their deliberations are slow. Why, then, should we distrust them? And, in consequence of that distrust, adopt measures which may cast a shade over that glory which has been so justly acquired and tarnish the reputation of an army which is celebrated through all Europe, for its fortitude and patriotism? And for what is this done? To bring the object we seek nearer? No! most certainly, in my opinion, it will cast it at a greater distance.

For myself (and I take no merit in giving the assurance, being induced to it from principles of gratitude, veracity, and justice), a grateful sense of the confidence you have ever placed in me, a recollection of the cheerful assistance and prompt obedience I have experienced from you, under every vicissitude of fortune, and the sincere affection I feel for an army I have so long had the honor to command will oblige me to declare, in this public and solemn manner, that, in the attainment of complete justice for all your toils and dangers, and in the gratification of every wish, so far as may be done consistently with the great duty I owe my country and those powers we are bound to respect, you may freely command my services to the utmost of my abilities.

While I give you these assurances, and pledge myself in the most unequivocal manner to exert whatever ability I am possessed of in your favor, let me entreat you, gentlemen, on your part, not to take any measures which, viewed in the calm light of reason, will lessen the dignity and sully the glory you have hitherto maintained let me request you to rely on the plighted faith of your country, and place a full confidence in the purity of the intentions of Congress that, previous to your dissolution as an army, they will cause all your accounts to be fairly liquidated, as directed in their resolutions, which were published to you two days ago, and that they will adopt the most effectual measures in their power to render ample justice to you, for your faithful and meritorious services. And let me conjure you, in the name of our common country, as you value your own sacred honor, as you respect the rights of humanity, and as you regard the military and national character of America, to express your utmost horror and detestation of the man who wishes, under any specious pretenses, to overturn the liberties of our country, and who wickedly attempts to open the floodgates of civil discord and deluge our rising empire in blood.

By thus determining and thus acting, you will pursue the plain and direct road to the attainment of your wishes. You will defeat the insidious designs of our enemies, who are compelled to resort from open force to secret artifice. You will give one more distinguished proof of unexampled patriotism and patient virtue, rising superior to the pressure of the most complicated sufferings. And you will, by the dignity of your conduct, afford occasion for posterity to say, when speaking of the glorious example you have exhibited to mankind, "Had this day been wanting, the world had never seen the last stage of perfection to which human nature is capable of attaining."

General George Washington - March 15, 1783

Post-note: This speech was not very well received by his men. Washington then took out a letter from a member of Congress explaining the financial difficulties of the government.

After reading a portion of the letter with his eyes squinting at the small writing, Washington suddenly stopped. His officers stared at him, wondering. Washington then reached into his coat pocket and took out a pair of reading glasses. Few of them knew he wore glasses, and were surprised.

"Gentlemen," said Washington, "you will permit me to put on my spectacles, for I have not only grown gray but almost blind in the service of my country."

In that single moment of sheer vulnerability, Washington's men were deeply moved, even shamed, and many were quickly in tears, now looking with great affection at this aging man who had led them through so much. Washington read the remainder of the letter, then left without saying another word, realizing their sentiments.

His officers then cast a unanimous vote, essentially agreeing to the rule of Congress. Thus, the civilian government was preserved and the experiment of democracy in America continued.

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What Were George Washington's Successes and Failures?

George Washington experienced many successes in his lifetime, with the greatest of them being elected the first president of the United States and leading the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Among his failures was furthering partisanship by siding with some of the views of Alexander Hamilton. He is also often criticized for being a slave owner and not freeing his personal slaves during his lifetime.

Historians generally cite his military achievements as being paramount in the American Revolution. He moved through the military ranks, earning acclaim for his exploits against the French and British. His leadership of the Continental Army saw it defeat Great Britain and emerge as an independent country. When calls for him to become the king of the newly formed country were issued, he refused the position. He established the position of President of the United States and held the office from April 1789 until March 1797, also setting the precedent for a two-term limit for sitting presidents.

When Washington left the office of president to return to farming, the national debt was well managed and there was peace throughout the country. One of his greatest legacies is that he set a precedent for presidential power that could be exercised when necessary while keeping the balance of power in check due to the government's three branches.


What Were George Washington's Hobbies?

George Washington liked farming, hunting and breeding dogs. He enjoyed horseback riding and was an excellent horseman. In addition, George Washington had a passion for interior decorating and design. He meticulously decorated his Mount Vernon home, where he hosted elaborate dinner parties, and his peers often remarked that he was an excellent host and a good dancer.

George Washington started riding horses at age 17. He was so renowned for his horse riding skills that Thomas Jefferson called him "the best horseman of his age." He was a fast and graceful rider.

Washington loved to catch his own food. He would often go hunting before breakfast and go fishing during the day. He owned a large pack of dogs for fox hunting, and he personally bred the dogs to be better hunters.

While many biographers have written about Washington's excellent hunting and riding skills, less well-known is Washington's love of interior decorating. He personally chose the wallpaper, paint colors and decorations for his Mount Vernon home. He collected many expensive home furnishings from abroad, and he was known to have impeccable taste in home decorations.

George Washington also enjoyed playing games like billiards and cards, which he often played for money.


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About the Papers of George Washington

The Papers of George Washington, launched at the University of Virginia in 1968, is a scholarly documentary editing project that edits, publishes, and publicizes a comprehensive edition of George Washington's public and private papers. Today there are copies of over 135,000 documents in the project’s document room—one of the richest collections of American historical manuscripts extant. There is almost no facet of research on life and enterprise in the late colonial and early national periods that will not be enhanced by material from these documents. The publication of Washington’s papers will make this source material available not only to scholars, but to all Americans interested in the founding of their nation.

This edition, available in both digital and print formats, is divided into six parts, five of which have been completed: the Diaries (1748–1799 six volumes) the Colonial Series (1744–1775 ten volumes) the Confederation Series (1784–1788 six volumes) the Presidential Series (1788–1797 twenty-one volumes) and the Retirement Series (1797–1799 four volumes). The project also has produced three individual books: The Journal of the Proceedings of the President, 1793–1797 (1981), a one-volume abridgment of the Diaries (1999), and Washington’s Barbados Diary, 1751–1752 (2018). Project staff now focuses on completing by 2028 the Revolutionary War Series (1775–1783 twenty-seven volumes of a projected forty-three, as of September 2020). In 2008, the project broadened its scope to include other significant editions, such as the George Washington’s Financial Papers, the Martha Washington Papers, and Washington Family Papers projects.

The project’s work is generously supported by grants from the Florence Gould Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, the Packard Humanities Institute, the University of Virginia, and gifts from private foundations and individuals. The project’s website is located at https://washingtonpapers.org.

The letterpress edition of The Papers of George Washington is available from The University of Virginia Press.

Copyright © by the Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. All rights reserved.

The National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) is part of the National Archives. Through its grants program, the NHPRC supports a wide range of activities to preserve, publish, and encourage the use of documentary sources, relating to the history of the United States, and research and development projects to bring historical records to the public.


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United States Presidents with Their Years in Office and Party Affiliation

T he office of President was created in the United States Constitution in 1788. The first President, George Washington , took office in 1789. The President serves as chief executive and is in charge of the executive branch of the United States government. The United States Constitution makes the President the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Over the years, the powers of the US president have been constantly expanding.

Primary functions

  • Enforcing laws passed by the United States Congress
  • Nominating a Cabinet of advisors
  • Giving pardons or reprieves
  • Making treaties
  • Choosing ambassadors to foreign countries
  • Selecting Judges, and Justices of the Supreme Court

Living former presidents

39th President: James (Jimmy) E. Carter
(1977 – 1981)
Born: October 1, 1924 ( age 96 )

42nd President: William (Bill) J. Clinton
(1993 – 2001)
Born: August 19, 1946 ( age 74 )

43rd President: George W. Bush
(2001 – 2009)
Born: July 6, 1946 ( age 74 )

44th President: Barack Obama
(2009 – 2017)
Born: August 4, 1961 ( age 59 )

45th President: Donald John Trump
(2017 – 2021)
Born: June 14, 1946 ( age 74 )

46th President: Joseph R. Biden, Jr.
(2021 – Present)
Born: November 20, 1942 ( age 78 )

List of Presidents of the United States

01. George Washington

1. George Washington
Born: February 22, 1732 Westmoreland County, Virginia
Died: December 14, 1799
Party: None
Term: 1789–1797
Age at Inauguration: 57
Accomplishment Synopsis:
The first President unified the new nation and shaped the chief executive’s duties. He refused to run for a third term. On their wedding day, Martha Washington gave him a miniature portrait of herself. He wore it on a chain around his neck until his death 40 years later.
Vice President: John Adams

02. John Adams

2. John Adams
Born: October 30, 1735 Braintree, Massachusetts
Died: July 4, 1826
Party: Federalist
Term: 1797–1801
Age at Inauguration: 61
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Adams was the first President to live in the White House. Adams had a tough job filling Washington’s shoes. His advocacy of the Alien and Sedition Acts allowed him to silence critics but made him unpopular. He lost reelection to Thomas Jefferson.
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson

03. Thomas Jefferson

3. Thomas Jefferson
Born: April 13, 1743 Albemarle County, Virginia
Died: July 4, 1826
Party: Democratic-Republican
Term: 1801–1809
Age at Inauguration: 57
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Considered the most brilliant President, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, founded the University of Virginia, and was an architect, a farmer, and a scientist. Jefferson approved the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, which nearly doubled the size of the U.S.
Vice President: Aaron Burr (March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805) / George Clinton (March 4, 1805 – March 4, 1809)

04. James Madison

4. James Madison
Born: March 16, 1751 Port Conway, Virginia
Died: June 28, 1836
Party: Democratic-Republican
Term: 1809–1817
Age at Inauguration: 57
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Madison is considered the father of the Bill of Rights. Madison presided over the War of 1812 with Britain, during which the White House was burned. The war ended in a draw.
Vice President: George Clinton (March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812) (Died in office) / (April 21, 1812 – March 3, 1813) Office vacant (Balance of Clinton’s term). Elbridge Gerry (March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814) (Died in office) / (November 24, 1814 – March 4, 1817) Office vacant (Balance of Gerry’s term)

05. James Monroe

5. James Monroe
Born: April 28, 1758 Westmoreland County, Virginia
Died: July 4, 1831
Party: Democratic-Republican
Term: 1817–1825
Age at Inauguration: 58
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Monroe lived out his retirement in poverty. His term is called the “Era of Good Feeling” because there was little partisan fighting. He formulated the Monroe Doctrine, which declared the Americas off-limits to European meddling.
Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins

06. John Quincy Adams

6. John Quincy Adams
Born: July 11, 1767 Braintree, Massachusetts
Died: February 23, 1848
Party: Democratic-Republican
Term: 1825–1829
Age at Inauguration: 57
Accomplishment Synopsis:
John Adams and John Quincy Adams were the first father and son to have served as Presidents. Accused of winning the White House through corruption, he was plagued by accusations of misdeeds throughout his presidency. After his presidency, Adams served nine terms in the House of Representatives, until his death in 1848.
Vice President: John C. Calhoun

07. Andrew Jackson

7. Andrew Jackson
Born: March 15, 1767 Waxhaw settlement, South Carolina
Died: June 8, 1845
Party: Democratic
Term: 1829–1837
Age at Inauguration: 61
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Jackson was the first President to ride on a train. Though he was a rich planter, Jackson was considered the common people’s friend. Dubbed “Old Hickory” because he was so tough, Jackson greatly expanded the powers of the Presidency.
Vice President: John C. Calhoun (March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832) (Resigned from office) / (December 29, 1832 – March 3, 1833)Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun’s term). Martin Van Buren (March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837)

08. Martin Van Buren

8. Martin Van Buren
Born: December 5, 1782 Kinderhook, New York
Died: July 24, 1862. Party: Democratic
Party: Democrat
Term: 1837–1841
Age at Inauguration: 54
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Van Buren was the first President to be born an American citizen, rather than a British subject. Van Buren’s Presidency was marred by an economic depression that led to bank failures and food riots. He was easily defeated for reelection.
Vice President: Richard M. Johnson

09. William Henry Harrison

9. William Henry Harrison
Born: February 9, 1773 Berkeley, Virginia
Died: April 4, 1841
Party: Whig
Term: 1841
Age at Inauguration: 68
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Harrison delivered a marathon inaugural speech during which he caught a cold. He died a month later. Harrison was the first President to die in office and he served the briefest term.
Vice President: John Tyler (Succeeded to presidency)

10. John Tyler

10. John Tyler
Born: March 29, 1790 Greenway, Virginia
Died: January 18, 1862
Party: Whig
Term: 1841–1845
Age at Inauguration: 51
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Tyler had 15 children, more than any President. Tyler was expected to be a passive “acting President” while he finished Harrison’s term, but he refused to be passive. He made enemies in Congress and was the first President to be threatened with impeachment. The effort failed.
Vice President: Office vacant

11. James K. Polk

11. James K. Polk
Born: November 2, 1795 near Pineville, North Carolina
Died: June 15, 1849
Party: Democratic
Term: 1845–1849
Age at Inauguration: 49
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Polk is the only President to have served as Speaker of the House. Polk was the first “dark horse” or little-known nominee to become President. He presided over the Mexican War, which added Texas, California, and other territory to the United States.
Vice President: George M. Dallas

12. Zachary Taylor

12. Zachary Taylor
Born: November 24, 1784 Orange County, Virginia
Died: July 9, 1850
Party: Whig
Term: 1849–1850
Age at Inauguration: 64
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Taylor won fame as a general in the Mexican War. His soldiers called him “Old Rough and Ready.” Taylor threatened to use force to keep the South from leaving the Union. After his death, a compromise allowed slavery to continue in the South.
Vice President: Millard Fillmore (Succeeded to presidency)

13. Millard Fillmore

13. Millard Fillmore
Born: January 7, 1800 Locke, New York
Died: March 8, 1874
Party: Whig
Term: 1850–1853
Age at Inauguration: 50
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Fillmore approved the Compromise of 1850, allowing slavery in the South. But neither the North nor the South was happy with it, and Fillmore was blamed for the law’s failure. In 1856, Fillmore ran for President on the anti-immigrant Know-Nothing Party ticket.
Vice President: Office vacant

14. Franklin Pierce

14. Franklin Pierce
Born: November 23, 1804 Hillsboro, New Hampshire
Died: October 8, 1869
Party: Democratic
Term: 1853–1857
Age at Inauguration: 48
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Pierce’s wife hated Washington, D.C., so much, that she fainted when she found out he had been nominated for President. Pierce supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which gutted the Compromise of 1850.
Vice President: William R. King (March 4 – April 18, 1853) (Died in office) / (April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857) Office vacant (Balance of King’s term)

15. James Buchanan

15. James Buchanan
Born: April 23, 1791 near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania
Died: June 1, 1868
Party: Democratic
Term: 1857–1861
Age at Inauguration: 65
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Buchanan was the only bachelor to ever serve in the White House. Buchanan tried in vain to find a compromise to keep the South from seceding from the Union but failed.
Vice President: John C. Breckinridge

16. Abraham Lincoln

16. Abraham Lincoln
Born: February 12, 1809 near Hodgenville, Kentucky
Died: April 15, 1865
Party: Republican
Term: 1861–1865
Age at Inauguration: 52
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Lincoln led the Union into the Civil War to preserve the nation and end slavery. He was assassinated just five days after the Confederate armies surrendered. Polls show that Lincoln is the most admired President.
Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin (March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865) / Andrew Johnson (March 4 – April 15, 1865) (Succeeded to presidency)

17. Andrew Johnson

17. Andrew Johnson
Born: December 29, 1808 Raleigh, North Carolina
Died: July 31, 1875
Party: National Union
Term: 1865–1869
Age at Inauguration: 56
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Succeeding Lincoln, Johnson found himself in bitter battles with Congress over Reconstruction. He was impeached and tried by the Senate but was acquitted by one vote. Johnson was the only southern senator to stay loyal to the Union.
Vice President: Office vacant

18. Ulysses S. Grant

18. Ulysses S. Grant
Born: April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio
Died: July 23, 1885
Party: Republican
Term: 1869–1877
Age at Inauguration: 46
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Grant was born Hiram Ulysses Grant, but an error on his application to West Point changed his name to Ulysses Simpson Grant. He liked the initials so much that he kept the name. Grant was the top Union military hero of the Civil War. His two terms were marred by scandals.
Vice President: Schuyler Colfax (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873) / Henry Wilson (March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875) (Died in office) / (November 23, 1875 – March 4, 1877) Office vacant (Balance of Wilson’s term)

19. Rutherford B. Hayes

19. Rutherford B. Hayes
Born: October 4, 1822 Delaware, Ohio
Died: January 17, 1893
Party: Republican
Term: 1877–1881
Age at Inauguration: 54
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Hayes is one of five Presidents to lose the popular vote but win the office. He won the election by one electoral vote. Hayes’s wife, Lucy, was the first First Lady to graduate from college.
Vice President: William A. Wheeler

20. James A. Garfield

20. James A. Garfield
Born: November 19, 1831 Orange, Ohio
Died: September 19, 1881
Party: Republican
Term: 1881
Age at Inauguration: 49
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Garfield set out to reform the “spoils system” by which politicians gave their friends low-level political offices. He was assassinated by a disappointed office seeker. Garfield was the first left-handed President.
Vice President: Chester A. Arthur (Succeeded to presidency)

21. Chester A. Arthur

21. Chester A. Arthur
Born: October 5, 1829 Fairfield, Vermont
Died: November 18, 1886
Party: Republican
Term: 1881–1885
Age at Inauguration: 51
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Arthur was unknown before being elected, but surprised people by being honest and responsible. He helped create the Civil Service. As a lawyer, Arthur defended a black woman who had been abused on a streetcar. He won the case, which led the streetcar companies to integrate.
Vice President: Office vacant

22. Grover Cleveland

22. Grover Cleveland
Born: March 18, 1837 Caldwell, New Jersey
Died: June 24, 1908
Party: Democratic
Terms: 1885–1889 1893–1897
Age at Inauguration: 47 55
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Cleveland is the only President to be elected to two non-consecutive terms. Cleveland expanded the Civil Service and ended wasteful government programs. But an economic depression wrecked his second term.
Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks (March 4 – November 25, 1885) (Died in office) / (November 26, 1885 – March 4, 1889) Office vacant (Balance of Hendricks’s term)

23. Benjamin Harrison

23. Benjamin Harrison
Born: August 20, 1833 North Bend, Ohio
Died: March 13, 1901
Party: Republican
Term: 1889–1893
Age at Inauguration: 55
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Harrison was caught between reformers who were fighting the spoils system and those who wanted to continue it and was defeated after one term. Harrison’s grandfather was President William Henry Harrison.
Vice President: Levi P. Morton

24. Grover Cleveland

24. Grover Cleveland
Born: March 18, 1837 Caldwell, New Jersey
Died: June 24, 1908
Party: Democratic
Terms: 1885–1889 1893–1897
Age at Inauguration: 47 55
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Cleveland expanded the Civil Service and ended wasteful government programs. But an economic depression wrecked his second term. Cleveland is the only President to be elected to two non-consecutive terms.
Vice President: Adlai Stevenson

25. William McKinley

25. William McKinley
Born: January 29, 1843 Niles, Ohio
Died: September 14, 1901
Party: Republican
Term: 1897–1901
Age at Inauguration: 54
Accomplishment Synopsis:
McKinley led the United States during the Spanish-American War. The United States won several important overseas colonies. Only moments after handing a girl his “lucky” red carnation, McKinley was assassinated.
Vice President: Garret Hobart (March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899) (Died in office) / Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart’s term) (November 22, 1899 – March 4, 1901) / Theodore Roosevelt (March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901) (Succeeded to presidency)

26. Theodore Roosevelt

26. Theodore Roosevelt
Born: October 27, 1858 New York, New York
Died: January 6, 1919
Party: Republican
Term: 1901–1909
Age at Inauguration: 42
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Roosevelt was one of the most activist Presidents. His many accomplishments included the building of the Panama Canal, cracking down on business monopolies, and creating many national parks. Roosevelt was the first President to visit a foreign country while in office.
Vice President: Office vacant (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905) / Charles W. Fairbanks (March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909)

27. William Howard Taft

27. William Howard Taft
Born: September 15, 1857 Cincinnati, Ohio
Died: March 8, 1930
Party: Republican
Term: 1909–1913
Age at Inauguration: 51
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Taft continued many of Roosevelt’s policies. A conservative, he alienated the progressive wing of his party and lost reelection. Taft is the only President who became a Supreme Court Justice.
Vice President: James S. Sherman (March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912) (Died in office) / Office vacant (October 31, 1912 – March 4, 1913) (Balance of Sherman’s term)

28. Woodrow Wilson

28. Woodrow Wilson
Born: December 29, 1856 Staunton, Virginia
Died: February 3, 1924
Party: Democratic
Term: 1913–1921
Age at Inauguration: 56
Accomplishment Synopsis:
After initially opposing World War I (1914–1918), Wilson led the United States into the war and drafted the peace plan that ended it. Wilson then fought to create the League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations. Wilson was the first President to hold a news conference.
Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall

29. Warren G. Harding

29. Warren G. Harding
Born: November 2, 1865 near Blooming Grove, Ohio
Died: August 2, 1923
Party: Republican
Term: 1921–1923
Age at Inauguration: 55
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Harding died in office, just as massive corruption in the Teapot Dome scandal was about to become public. Harding’s election was the first in which women voted.
Vice President: Calvin Coolidge (Succeeded to presidency)

30. Calvin Coolidge

30. Calvin Coolidge
Born: July 4, 1872 Plymouth Notch, Vermont
Died: January 5, 1933
Party: Republican
Term: 1923–1929
Age at Inauguration: 51
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Coolidge’s term was marked by economic prosperity. However, he ignored signs that the stock market was likely to collapse. Coolidge was known as “Silent Cal.” Once a reporter said to him, “I bet my editor I could get more than two words out of you.” Coolidge replied: “You lose.”
Vice President: Office vacant (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925) / Charles G. Dawes (March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929)

31. Herbert C. Hoover

31. Herbert C. Hoover
Born: August 10, 1874 West Branch, Iowa
Died: October 20, 1964
Party: Republican
Term: 1929–1933
Age at Inauguration: 54
Accomplishment Synopsis:
The stock market crashed a few months into Hoover’s term. The Great Depression that followed was widely and some say unfairly blamed on Hoover. Hoover organized relief efforts in Europe after both World Wars.
Vice President: Charles Curtis

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Born: January 30, 1882 Hyde Park, New York
Died: April 12, 1945
Party: Democratic
Term: 1933–1945
Age at Inauguration: 51
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Roosevelt led the nation during the Great Depression of the 1930s and to victory in World War II (1941–1945). He also greatly expanded the size and role of the federal government through his New Deal social programs. Roosevelt is the only President elected four times.
Vice President: John N. Garner (March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941) / Henry A. Wallace (January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945) / Harry S. Truman (January 20 – April 12, 1945) (Succeeded to presidency)

33. Harry S. Truman

33. Harry S. Truman
Born: May 8, 1884 Lamar, Missouri
Died: December 26, 1972
Party: Democratic
Term: 1945–1953
Age at Inauguration: 60
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Truman made the fateful decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan. World War II ended days later. Truman also led the United States during the Korean War (1950–1953). On his desk, Truman had a plaque that said “The Buck Stops Here.”
Vice President: Office vacant (April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949) / Alben W. Barkley (January 20, 1949 – January 20, 1953)

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Born: October 14, 1890 Denison, Texas
Died: March 28, 1969
Party: Republican
Term: 1953–1961
Age at Inauguration: 62
Accomplishment Synopsis:
A former World War II general and hero, Eisenhower helped end the Korean War and steered a moderate course during the Cold War. One of America’s most famous soldiers, “Ike” had wanted to go to the Naval Academy instead of West Point. He was turned down for being too old.
Vice President: Richard Nixon

35. John F. Kennedy

35. John F. Kennedy
Born: May 29, 1917 Brookline, Massachusetts
Died: November 22, 1963
Party: Democratic
Term: 1961–1963
Age at Inauguration: 43
Accomplishment Synopsis:
In 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union hovered on the brink of nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy eventually forced the Soviets to back down. He was assassinated in the third year of his term. Kennedy is the only Roman Catholic to become President.
Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson (Succeeded to presidency)

36. Lyndon B. Johnson

36. Lyndon B. Johnson
Born: August 27, 1908 near Stonewall, Texas
Died: January 22, 1973
Party: Democratic
Term: 1963–1969
Age at Inauguration: 55
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Johnson passed sweeping antipoverty and civil rights programs. However, he also involved the United States in the unpopular Vietnam War. Antiwar protests caused him to drop a reelection bid. Johnson was sworn into office on an airplane after the Kennedy assassination.
Vice President: Office vacant (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965) / Hubert Humphrey (January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969)

37. Richard M. Nixon

37. Richard M. Nixon
Born: January 9, 1913 Yorba Linda, California
Died: April 22, 1994
Party: Republican
Term: 1969–1974
Age at Inauguration: 56
Accomplishment Synopsis:
During Nixon’s first term, he improved relations with the Soviet Union and China and wound down the Vietnam War. Following Nixon’s reelection, news of the Watergate scandal forced Nixon to resign before Congress could impeach him. He is the only U.S. President in history to resign his office.
Vice President: Spiro Agnew (January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973) (Resigned from office) / Office vacant (October 10 – December 6, 1973) / Gerald Ford (December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974) (Succeeded to presidency)

38. Gerald R. Ford

38. Gerald R. Ford
Born: July 14, 1913 Omaha, Nebraska
Died: December 26, 2006
Party: Republican
Term: 1974–1977
Age at Inauguration: 61
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Ford became Vice President after Nixon’s Vice President resigned in disgrace, and then President after Nixon resigned. His pardon of Nixon was unpopular, probably costing him reelection. Ford is the only President never elected President or Vice President.
Vice President: Office vacant (August 9 – December 19, 1974) / Nelson Rockefeller (December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977)

39. James (Jimmy) E. Carter

39. James (Jimmy) E. Carter
Born: October 1, 1924 Plains, Georgia
Party: Democratic
Term: 1977–1981
Age at Inauguration: 52
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Carter had success promoting Middle East peace. But soaring oil prices, high inflation, and the Iran hostage crisis made him look weak and ineffectual. Since leaving office, Carter has traveled the world doing charity work.
Vice President: Walter Mondale

40. Ronald W. Reagan

40. Ronald W. Reagan
Born: February 6, 1911 Tampico, Illinois
Died: June 5, 2004
Party: Republican
Term: 1981–1989
Age at Inauguration: 69
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Reagan is credited with reviving national pride after the turmoil of the 1960s and 1970s. He enjoyed great popularity, though his conservative policies were controversial. Reagan is the only President to survive after being wounded by a would-be assassin.
Vice President: George H. W. Bush

41. George H. W. Bush

41. George H. W. Bush
Born: June 12, 1924 Milton, Massachusetts
Party: Republican
Term: 1989–1993
Age at Inauguration: 64
Accomplishment Synopsis:
During Bush’s term, the Soviet Union collapsed, and the Cold War ended. He also led the United States in the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq. But economic troubles at home cost him his reelection bid. Bush was the first sitting Vice President to be elected President since Martin Van Buren.
Vice President: Dan Quayle

42. William (Bill) J. Clinton

42. William (Bill) J. Clinton
Born: August 19, 1946 Hope, Arkansas
Party: Democratic
Term: 1993–2001
Age at Inauguration: 46
Accomplishment Synopsis:
When he was 16, Clinton met President Kennedy at the White House. The experience inspired his interest in politics. Clinton achieved goals such as passage of the NAFTA trade agreement and cuts in the budget deficit. But his popularity was uneven, and his second term was marred by scandal, including impeachment.
Vice President: Al Gore

43. George W. Bush

43. George W. Bush
Born: July 6, 1946 New Haven, Connecticut
Party: Republican
Term: 2001–2009
Age at Inauguration: 54
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Just eight months after being sworn in, President Bush had to unite a mournful country after the September 11th terrorist attacks. A self-proclaimed wartime commander-in-chief, President Bush, like his father, led the United States into war against Iraq. Before focusing on national politics, George Bush was the managing partner and part owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team from 1989–1998.
Vice President: Dick Cheney

44. Barack Obama

44. Barack Obama
Born: August 4, 1961 Honolulu, Hawaii
Party: Democrat
Term: 2009–2017
Age at Inauguration: 47
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Barack Obama gained national recognition after he delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in 2004. He served as the U.S. Senator for Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Barack Obama is the first African American president of the United States.
Vice President: Joe Biden

45. Donald Trump

45. Donald Trump
Born: June 14, 1946 New York City, NY
Party: Republican
Term: 2017-2021
Age at Inauguration: 70
Accomplishment Synopsis:
Donald Trump was a businessman who began his career in real estate. He later became a reality television personality. He is the first president who has neither held public office nor served in the military.
Vice President: Mike Pence

46. Joseph R. Biden, Jr.

46. Joseph R. Biden Jr
Born: November 20, 1942 Scranton, PA
Party: Democrat
Term: 2021-Present
Age at Inauguration: 78
Accomplishment Synopsis:
At age 29, President Biden became one of the youngest people ever elected to the United States Senate. President Biden represented Delaware for 36 years in the U.S. Senate before becoming the 47th Vice President of the United States. President Biden graduated from the University of Delaware and Syracuse Law School and served on the New Castle County Council. Just weeks after his Senate election, tragedy struck the Biden family when his wife Neilia and daughter Naomi were killed, and sons Hunter and Beau were critically injured, in an auto accident.
Vice President: Kamala Harris


Author: eCommunicator
ECWA Editorial Board: Our editorial board or advisory board consists of a group of well published, prominent professors, with academic credentials and a detailed knowledge of their subject area.


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Comments:

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  3. Ailein

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  4. Shawe

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