HMS Caesar

HMS Caesar



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HMS Caesar

HMS Caesar was a Majestic class battleship that took part in the fighting on the Belgian coast in 1914 before spending most of the rest of the First World War on the North American and West Indies station. Before the war she had been one of the few members of her class to serve overseas, with the Mediterranean fleet from 1898 to 1903. From 1905-1907 she was the flagship of the rear-admiral of the Channel Fleet. In 1907 she briefly served as flagship of the Atlantic Fleet, before moving to the Home Fleet.

At the outbreak of the First World War she was the only member of the class that was ready to join the 7th Battle Squadron of the Channel Fleet (Majestic and Jupiter were also part of the squadron but were in dockyard hands in August 1914).

In late August 1914 three Marine battalions were transported by sea to Ostend in an attempt to prevent the Germans capturing that important port. HMS Caesar was part of the force that transported the Plymouth battalion across the channel.

In 1915 she was transferred to the North American and West Indies station. By late 1916 she was serving as the Bermuda guard ship and by the summer of 1917 she was the only battleship still on the station, the danger from German surface raiders having long passed. In 1917 she was transferred to the Mediterranean, where she formed part of the Allied fleet that sailed through the Dardanelles to Constantinople at the end of the war.

Displacement (loaded)

15,730-16,060t

Top Speed

16kts natural draught
17kts forced draught

Range

Armour – belt

9in

- bulkheads

14-12in

- barbettes

14in

- gun houses

10in

- casemates

6in

- conning tower

14in

- deck

4in-2.5in

Length

421ft

Armaments

Four 12in guns
Twelve 6in quick firing guns
Sixteen 12pdr quick firing guns
Twelve 2pdr quick firing guns
Five 18in torpedo tubes, four submerged

Crew complement

672

Launched

2 September 1896

Completed

January 1898

Sold for break up

1921

Captains

Capt. Foot (1916)

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


César (1802 ship)

César was a mercantile brig launched in 1802 that the French Navy purchased at Bordeaux in 1803. The Royal Navy captured her in July 1806 and took her into their service, but she was wrecked in early 1807.

History
France
Name: César
Launched: 1802 [1]
Acquired: 29 August 1803 by purchase
Captured: July 1806
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Cesar
Acquired: By capture July 1806
Fate: Wrecked March 1807
General characteristics [2]
Type: Brig
Tons burthen: 320 (bm) [2] 209 (by calc.)
Length: c.82 ft (25 m) or c.88 ft (27 m)
Beam: c.23 ft (7 m)
Complement: 86 at capture [3]
Armament: 18 x 4-pounders [1]


Caesar salad

The salad's creation is generally attributed to restaurateur Caesar Cardini, an Italian immigrant who operated restaurants in Mexico and the United States. [2] His daughter Rosa recounted that her father invented the salad at his restaurant Caesar's (at the Hotel Caesar in Tijuana, Mexico) when a Fourth of July rush in 1924 depleted the kitchen's supplies. Cardini made do with what he had, adding the dramatic flair of the table-side tossing "by the chef." [3] [ incomplete short citation ] Cardini was living in San Diego but he was also working in Tijuana where he avoided the restrictions of Prohibition. [4] A number of Cardini's staff have said that they invented the dish. [5] [ incomplete short citation ] [6]

Julia Child said that she had eaten a Caesar salad at Cardini's restaurant when she was a child in the 1920s. [7] In 1946, newspaper columnist Dorothy Kilgallen wrote of a Caesar containing anchovies, differing from Cardini's version:

The big food rage in Hollywood—the Caesar salad—will be introduced to New Yorkers by Gilmore's Steak House. It's an intricate concoction that takes ages to prepare and contains (zowie!) lots of garlic, raw or slightly coddled eggs, croutons, romaine, anchovies, parmeasan [sic] cheese, olive oil, vinegar and plenty of black pepper. [8]

According to Rosa Cardini, the original Caesar salad (unlike his brother Alex's Aviator's salad, which was later renamed to Caesar salad) [5] did not contain pieces of anchovy the slight anchovy flavor comes from the Worcestershire sauce. Cardini was opposed to using anchovies in his salad. [9] [ incomplete short citation ]

In the 1970s, Cardini's daughter said that the original recipe included whole lettuce leaves, which were meant to be lifted by the stem and eaten with the fingers coddled eggs and Italian olive oil. [7]

Although the original recipe does not contain anchovies, modern recipes typically include anchovies as a key ingredient, which frequently is emulsified in bottled versions. [10] Bottled Caesar dressings are now produced and marketed by many companies.

The trademark brands "Cardini's", "Caesar Cardini's" and "The Original Caesar Dressing" are all claimed to date to February 1950, although they were only registered decades later, [11] and more than a dozen varieties of bottled Cardini's dressing are available today, with various ingredients.


Service history

HMS Caesar was built at the Portsmouth Dockyard, with her keel laying taking place on 25 March 1895. She was launched on 2 September 1896, and completed in January 1898. [2] The ship was commissioned at Portsmouth on 13 January to serve in the Mediterranean Fleet. Before leaving for the Mediterranean, she was attached temporarily to the Channel Fleet to serve in home waters. [3] In May 1898, Caesar departed the United Kingdom for her Mediterranean service, undergoing a refit at Malta in 1900–01. Captain George Callaghan was appointed to command her on 21 December 1901, [4] succeeding Captain John Ferris. She ended her Mediterranean service in October 1903, paying off at Portsmouth on 6 October 1903 to begin a refit. [5] Her refit completed, Caesar was commissioned at Portsmouth on 2 February 1904 to relieve her sister ship HMS Majestic as flagship of the Channel Fleet. When the Channel Fleet became the Atlantic Fleet as a result of a reorganisation on 1 January 1905, Caesar became flagship of the Atlantic Fleet. She was relieved of this duty in March 1905, becoming 2nd Flagship of the new Channel Fleet (which had been the Home Fleet prior to the reorganisation). [5]

On 3 June 1905, Caesar collided with and sank the barque Afghanistan off Dungeness, suffering significant damage her bridge wings were carried away and the boats, davits, and net booms on her port side were badly damaged. Caesar was refitted at Devonport to repair the damage. [6] Caesar became Flagship, Rear Admiral, Home Fleet, in December 1905. She was relieved of this duty in February 1907 and transferred back to the Atlantic Fleet to become its temporary flagship. [7] She served in this role until May 1907. [3] On 27 May 1907, Caesar was recommissioned for service in the Devonport Division of the new Home Fleet, which had been formed in January 1907. During this service she underwent a refit at Devonport in 1907–08. [3] In May 1909, Caesar transferred to the Nore, temporarily serving as the flagship of Vice Admiral, 3rd and 4th Divisions, Home Fleet. In April 1911 she transferred to Devonport to serve in the 3rd Division, Home Fleet. [7] On 16 January 1911, Caesar was rammed by the barque Excelsior in fog at Sheerness, suffering no serious damage. [3] In March 1912, Caesar was placed in commissioned reserve with a nucleus crew as part of the 4th Division, Home Fleet. [7]

At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Caesar was brought back into full commission [7] and transferred to the 7th Battle Squadron of the Channel Fleet the squadron was charged with the defence of the English Channel. During this service she helped in transporting the Plymouth Marine Division from Plymouth to Ostend, Belgium, and covered the passage of the British Expeditionary Force from England to France in September 1914. [3] In December 1914, Caesar was detached from the 7th Battle Squadron and transferred to Gibraltar to serve as guard ship and gunnery training ship there. In July 1915, she transferred to the North America and West Indies Station, [7] serving as guard ship and gunnery training ship at Bermuda [3] and patrolling the Atlantic. [7]

Her North America and West Indies Station service ended in September 1918, when Caesar was transferred to relieve HMS Andromache (the old second-class cruiser and former minelayer HMS Latona) as flagship of the Senior Naval Officer, British Adriatic Squadron, at Corfu, the last British pre-dreadnought to serve as a flagship. In September 1918, Caesar went to Malta for refit as a depot ship, during which she was equipped with repair shops and with leisure facilities such as recreation rooms and reading rooms. This conversion completed, she took up duties in October 1918 at Mudros as depot ship for the British Aegean Squadron. In January 1919 she was transferred to Port Said, Egypt, for service as a depot ship there. In June 1919, Caesar transited the Dardanelles and transferred to the Black Sea, where she served as a depot ship for British naval forces operating against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution. In this service she became the last British pre-dreadnought to serve operationally overseas. Caesar returned to the United Kingdom in March 1920, paid off at Devonport on 23 April 1920, and was placed on the disposal list. She was sold to a British firm for scrapping on 8 November 1921, then resold to a German firm in July 1922 and towed from Devonport to Germany to be scrapped. [3]


The meaning of the term is unknown and there are several theories. Julius himself, however, endorsed a meaning where it came from a Punic word meaning elephant (most likely referencing the North African elephant). [ citation needed ] Another theory is that it comes from the Etruscan kēsar (cognate with Sanskrit kēsari), lion.

For political and personal reasons, Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Julius Caesar by styling himself simply "Imperator Caesar" (whereto the Roman Senate added the honorific Augustus, "Majestic" or "Venerable", in 27 BC), without any of the other elements of his full name. His successor as emperor, his stepson Tiberius, also bore the name as a matter of course born Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted by Caesar Augustus on 26 June 4 AD, as "Tiberius Julius Caesar". The precedent was set: the Emperor designated his successor by adopting him and giving him the name "Caesar".

The fourth Emperor, Claudius, was the first to assume the name "Caesar" upon accession, without having been adopted by the previous emperor however, he was at least a member by blood of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, being the maternal great-nephew of Augustus on his mother's side, the nephew of Tiberius, and the uncle of Caligula. Claudius in turn adopted his stepson and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, giving him the name "Caesar" in the traditional way his stepson would rule as the Emperor Nero. The first emperor to assume the position and the name simultaneously without any real claim to either was the usurper Servius Sulpicius Galba, who took the imperial throne under the name "Servius Galba Imperator Caesar" following the death of the last of the Julio-Claudians, Nero, in 68 AD. Galba helped solidify "Caesar" as the title of the designated heir by giving it to his own adopted heir, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus.

Galba's reign did not last long and he was soon deposed by Marcus Otho. Otho did not at first use the title "Caesar" and occasionally used the title "Nero" as emperor, but later adopted the title "Caesar" as well. Otho was then defeated by Aulus Vitellius, who acceded with the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus". Vitellius did not adopt the cognomen "Caesar" as part of his name and may have intended to replace it with "Germanicus" (he bestowed the name "Germanicus" upon his own son that year).

Nevertheless, Caesar had become such an integral part of the imperial dignity that its place was immediately restored by Titus Flavius Vespasianus ("Vespasian"), whose defeat of Vitellius in 69 AD put an end to the period of instability and began the Flavian dynasty. Vespasian's son, Titus Flavius Vespasianus became "Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus".

By this point the status of "Caesar" had been regularised into that of a title given to the Emperor-designate (occasionally also with the honorific title Princeps Iuventutis, "Prince of Youth") and retained by him upon accession to the throne (e.g., Marcus Ulpius Traianus became Marcus Cocceius Nerva's designated heir as Caesar Nerva Traianus in October 97 and acceded on 28 January 98 as "Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus"). After some variation among the earliest emperors, the style of the Emperor-designate on coins was usually Nobilissimus Caesar "Most Noble Caesar" (abbreviated to NOB CAES, N CAES etc.), though Caesar (CAES) on its own was also used.

Crisis of the Third Century Edit

The popularity of using the title Caesar to designate heirs-apparent increased throughout the third century. Many of the soldier emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century attempted to strengthen their legitimacy by naming heirs, including Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Decius, Trebonianus Gallus and Gallienus. Some of these were promoted to the rank of Augustus within their father's lifetime, for example Philippus II. The same title would also be used in the Gallic Empire, which operated autonomously from the rest of the Roman Empire from 260 to 274, with the final Gallic emperor Tetricus I appointing his heir Tetricus II Caesar and his consular colleague for 274.

Despite the best efforts of these emperors, however, the granting of this title does not seem to have made succession in this chaotic period any more stable. Almost all Caesars would be killed before or alongside their fathers, or at best outlive them for a matter of months, as in the case of Hostilian. The sole Caesar to successfully obtain the rank of Augustus and rule for some time in his own right was Gordian III, and even he was heavily controlled by his court.

Tetrarchy Edit

On 1 March 293, Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, a system of rule by two senior Emperors and two junior sub-Emperors. The two coequal senior emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors, as Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix Invictus Augustus (Elagabalus had introduced the use of Pius Felix, "the Pious and Blessed", while Maximinus Thrax introduced the use of Invictus, "the Unconquered") and were called the Augusti, while the two junior sub-Emperors were styled identically to previous Emperors-designate, as Nobilissimus Caesar. Likewise, the junior sub-Emperors retained the title "Caesar" upon accession to the senior position.

The Tetrarchy was quickly abandoned as a system (though the four quarters of the empire survived as praetorian prefectures) in favour of two equal, territorial emperors, and the previous system of Emperors and Emperors-designate was restored, both in the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East.

After the Tetrarchy Edit

The title of Caesar remained in use throughout the Constantinian period, with both Constantine I and his co-emperor and rival Licinius utilising it to mark their heirs. In the case of Constantine, this meant that by the time he died, he had four Caesars: Constantius II, Constantine II, Constans and his nephew Dalmatius, with his eldest son Crispus having been executed in mysterious circumstances earlier in his reign. In the event, Constantine would be succeeded only by his three sons, with Dalmatius dying in the summer of 337 in similarly murky circumstances.

Constantius II himself would nominate as Caesars his two cousins Constantius Gallus and Julian in succession in the 350s, although he first executed Gallus and then found himself at war with Julian before his own death. After Julian's revolt of 361, the title Caesar fell out of imperial fashion for some time, with emperors preferring simply to elevate their sons directly to the post of Augustus, as with Gratian. It would be revived only nearly three quarters of a century later when Theodosius II used it to mark his nephew Valentinian III before successfully installing him upon the western throne vacated by the boy's other uncle Honorius. Thereafter it would receive limited use in the Eastern Roman Empire, for example, in the designation of the future Leo II in the final months of his grandfather's life.

Caesar or Kaisar ( Καῖσαρ ) was a senior court title in the Byzantine Empire. Originally, as in the late Roman Empire, it was used for a subordinate co-emperor or the heir apparent, and was first among the "awarded" dignities. From the reign of Theodosius I, however, most emperors chose to solidify the succession of their intended heirs by raising them to co-emperors. Hence the title was more frequently awarded to second- and third-born sons, or to close and influential relatives of the Emperor: thus for example Alexios Mosele was the son-in-law of Theophilos (ruled 829–842), Bardas was the uncle and chief minister of Michael III (r. 842–867), while Nikephoros II (r. 963–969) awarded the title to his father, Bardas Phokas. [1] [2] An exceptional case was the conferment of the dignity and its insignia to the Bulgarian khan Tervel by Justinian II (r. 685–695, 705–711) who had helped him regain his throne in 705. [2] The title was awarded to the brother of Empress Maria of Alania, George II of Georgia in 1081.

The office enjoyed extensive privileges, great prestige and power. When Alexios I Komnenos created the title of sebastokrator, kaisar became third in importance, and fourth after Manuel I Komnenos created the title of despot, which it remained until the end of the Empire. The feminine form was kaisarissa. It remained an office of great importance, usually awarded to imperial relations, as well as a few high-ranking and distinguished officials, and only rarely awarded to foreigners.

According to the Klētorologion of 899, the Byzantine Caesar ' s insignia were a crown without a cross, and the ceremony of a Caesar ' s creation (in this case dating to Constantine V), is included in De Ceremoniis I.43. [3] The title remained the highest in the imperial hierarchy until the introduction of the sebastokratōr (a composite derived from sebastos and autokrator, the Greek equivalents of Augustus and imperator) by Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118) and later of despotēs by Manuel I Komnenos (r. 1143–1180). The title remained in existence through the last centuries of the Empire. In the Palaiologan period, it was held by prominent nobles like Alexios Strategopoulos, but from the 14th century, it was mostly awarded to rulers of the Balkans such as the princes of Vlachia, Serbia and Thessaly. [2]

In the late Byzantine hierarchy, as recorded in the mid-14th century Book of Offices of pseudo-Kodinos, the rank continued to come after the sebastokratōr. Pseudo-Kodinos further records that the Caesar was equal in precedence to the panhypersebastos, another creation of Alexios I, but that Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259–1282) had raised his nephew Michael Tarchaneiotes to the rank of protovestiarios and decreed that to come after the Caesar while under Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282–1328) the megas domestikos was raised to the same eminence, when it was awarded to the future emperor John VI Kantakouzenos (r. 1347–1354). [4] According to pseudo-Kodinos, the Caesar ' s insignia under the Palaiologoi were a skiadion hat in red and gold, decorated with gold-wire embroideries, with a veil bearing the wearer's name and pendants identical to those of the despotēs and the sebastokratōr. He wore a red tunic (rouchon) similar to the emperor's (without certain decorations), and his shoes and stockings were blue, as were the accouterments of his horse these were all identical to those of the sebastokratōr, but without the embroidered eagles of the latter. Pseudo-Kodinos writes that the particular forms of another form of hat, the domed skaranikon, and of the mantle, the tamparion, for the Caesar were not known. [5]

"Caesar" is the title officially used by the Sasanid Persians to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors. [6] [7] In the Middle East, the Persians and the Arabs continued to refer to the Roman and Byzantine emperors as "Caesar" (in Persian: قیصر روم ‎ Qaysar-i Rum, "Caesar of the Romans", from Middle Persian kēsar). Thus, following the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the victorious Ottoman sultan Mehmed II became the first of the rulers of the Ottoman Empire to assume the title (in Ottoman Turkish: قیصر روم ‎ Kayser-i Rûm).

After the Fall of Constantinople, having conquered the Byzantine Empire, Mehmed took the title Kayser-i Rûm, claiming succession to the Roman imperium. [8] His claim was that, by possession of the city, he was emperor, a new dynast by conquest, as had been done previously by the likes of Heraclius and Leo III. [9] Contemporary scholar George of Trebizond wrote "the seat of the Roman Empire is Constantinople . and he who is and remains Emperor of the Romans is also the Emperor of the whole world". [10]

Gennadius II, a staunch antagonist of the West because of the Sack of Constantinople committed by the Western Catholics and theological controversies between the two Churches, had been enthroned the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople-New Rome with all the ceremonial elements and ethnarch (or milletbashi) status by the Sultan himself in 1454. In turn, Gennadius II formally recognized Mehmed as successor to the throne. [11] Mehmed also had a blood lineage to the Byzantine Imperial family his predecessor, Sultan Orhan I had married a Byzantine princess, and Mehmed may have claimed descent from John Tzelepes Komnenos. [12] Ottoman sultans were not the only rulers to claim such a title, as there was the Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, whose emperor, Frederick III, traced his titular lineage from Charlemagne who obtained the title of Roman Emperor when he was crowned by Pope Leo III in 800, although he was never recognized as such by the Byzantine Empire.

In diplomatic writings between the Ottomans and Austrians, the Ottoman bureaucracy was angered by their use of the Caesar title when the Ottomans saw themself as the true successors of Rome. When war broke out and peace negotiations were done, the Austrians (Holy Roman Empire) agreed to give up the use of the Caesar title according to the Treaty of Konstantiniyye 1533 (though they would continue to use it and the Roman imperial title until the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806). The Russians, who defined Moscow as the Third Rome, were similarly sanctioned by the Ottomans, who ordered the Crimean Khanate to raid Russia on numerous occasions. [13] The Ottomans would lose their political superiority over the Holy Roman Empire with the Treaty of Zsitvatorok in 1606, and over the Russian Empire with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774, by diplomatically recognising the monarchs of these two countries as equals to the Ottoman Sultan for the first time.

Title (and name) Edit

The history of "Caesar" as an imperial title is reflected by the following monarchic titles, usually reserved for "emperor" and "empress" in many languages (note that the name Caesar, pronounced / s iː z ər / in English, was pronounced [kaisar] in Classical Latin):

    : Kejser and Kejserinde : Keizer and Keizerin : Kaiser and Kaiserin : Keisari and Keisaraynja : Keisari and Keisarinna : Keiser and Keiserinne (bokmål) / Keisar and Keisarinne (nynorsk) : Kejsare and Kejsarinna : cāsere
    , Cesare, used as a first name. , cezar as a common noun in certain contexts Cezar, used as a first name. , Portuguese and French, César: commonly used as first or second name.
    : Цар , царыца (transliterated as tsar, tsarytsa) : Цар , царица (transliterated as tsar, tsaritsa) : Císař, císařovna : Цар , царица (transliterated as tsar, tsarica) : Cesarz, Cesarzowa : Царь , Царица, (transliterated as tsar, tsaritsa) however in the Russian Empire (also reflected in some of its other languages), which aimed to be the "third Rome" as successor to the Byzantine Empire, it was abandoned (not in the foreign language renderings though) as imperial style—in favor of Imperator and Autocrator—and used as a lower, royal style as within the empire in chief of some of its parts, e.g. Georgia and Siberia
    • In the United States and, more recently, Britain, the title "czar" (an archaic transliteration of the Russian title) is a slang term for certain high-level civil servants, such as the "drug czar" for the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy and "terrorism czar" for a Presidential advisor on terrorism policy. More specifically, a czar refers to a sub-cabinet-level advisor within the executive branch of the U.S. government.
      : Kayser (historical), Sezar (modern). Kayser-i-Rûm "Caesar of [Constantinople, the second] Rome", one of many subsidiary titles proclaiming the Ottoman Sultan (main imperial title Padishah) as (Muslim) successor to "Rum" as the Turks called the (Christian) Roman Empire (as Byzantium had continued to call itself), continuing to use the name for part of formerly Byzantine territory (compare the Seljuk Rum-sultanate)

    In various Romance and other languages, the imperial title was based on the Latin Imperator (a military mandate or a victory title), but Caesar or a derivation is still used for both the name and the minor ranks (still perceived as Latin). [ citation needed ]

    There have been other cases of a noun proper being turned into a title, such as Charlemagne's Latin name, including the epithet, Carolus (magnus), becoming Slavonic titles rendered as King: Kralj (Serbo-Croatian), Král (Czech) and Król (Polish), etc. [ citation needed ]

    However certain languages, especially Romance languages, also commonly use a "modernized" word (e.g., César in French) for the name, both referring to the Roman cognomen and modern use as a first name, and even to render the title Caesar, sometimes again extended to the derived imperial titles above. [ citation needed ]

    Translation of the name Caesar first recorded in the first book translated to Yoruba, the bible. The Caesar in the bible refers to Emperor Augustus, who was referred to as Caesar. It was not used as a title for kings as it did not reach the language till the late 19th century and was not widely known till the 20th century. The main title for king was "Kábíyèsi", meaning one who cannot be questioned (Ká-bí-yò-èsi).

    Historiography Edit

    Oswald Spengler used the term, Caesarism, in his book, The Decline of the West.


    HMS Caesar (R07)

    Alus tilattiin John Brown and Companyltä Clydebankistä nimellä HMS Ranger osana 11. hätälaivuetta (engl. 11th Emergency Flotilla ). Aluksen nimi vaihdettiin HMS Caesariksi amiraliteetin tehtyä päätöksen perustettavana laivueen alusten nimeämisestä Ca-alkuisin nimin. Sen köli laskettiin 3. huhtikuuta 1943 ja alus laskettiin vesille 14. helmikuuta 1944. Alus valmistui 5. lokakuuta 1944. [1]

    HMS Caesar aloitti 5. lokakuuta 1944 hyväksyntätestit, joiden seurauksena ehdotettiin lisäämään ilmastointia ohjaustiloihin ja tutkahuoneeseen. Alus aloitti testien päätyttyä koulutuksen Scapa Flowssa osana Kotilaivastoa. Marraskuussa koulutuksen päätyttyä se liittyi Kotilaivaston 7. hävittäjälaivueeseen. [1]

    Alus suojasi 14. marraskuuta saattuetukialus HMS Pursueria ja risteilijä HMS Euryalusta yhdessä HMS Nubianin, HMS Venuksen ja HMS Zephyrin kanssa. Osaston tehtävänä oli iskeä Norjan rannikon kohteisiin Tromsön edustalla. Operaation aikana upotettiin Saksan laivaston partioalus V6413. Alus suojasi 29. marraskuuta laivueensa mukana HMS Bellonaa, HMS Campaniaa ja HMS Nairanaa. Suojauksessa oli lisäksi vielä hävittäjät HMS Onslow, HMS Obedient, HMS Offa, HMS Oribi, HMS Onslaught ja HMS Orwell. Osaston tehtävänä oli suojata saattuetta JW62 Kuolaan ja se liittyi 1. joulukuuta saattueeseen, jota uhkasi sukellusveneryhmä Stock. Sukellusveneet eivät kuitenkaan löytäneet saattuetta. Sukellusveneryhmä Grube vältettiin hajottamalla seuraavana päivänä saattue. Alus erkani 7. joulukuuta suojausosaston kanssa saattueesta, sen saavuttua ilman tappioita määränpäähänsä. [1]

    HMS Caesar liittyi 10. joulukuuta suojueen mukana palaavaan saattueeseen RA52. Seuraavana päivänä HMS Cassandraan osui Saksan laivaston sukellusveneen U-365 laukaisema torpedo, joka aiheutti pahaa tuhoa. Norjan laivaston korvetti KNM Tunsberg Castle upposi 12. joulukuuta osuttuaan miinaan vieden mukanaan suuren osan miehistöstään. HMS Nairanan lentokone upotti 13. joulukuuta U-365:n. Alus erkani 19. joulukuuta Loch Ewessä saattueesta. [1]

    Vuoden 1945 ensimmäisen neljänneksen alus palveli laivueensa mukana osana Kotilaivastoa ja Läntisellä reitillä suojaamassa Atlantilla matkanneita saattueita. Huhtikuussa alus määrättiin ulkomaan palvelukseen, jonka seurauksena se oli huollettavana toukokuusta heinäkuuhun ennen siirtoa Itäiseen laivastoon. Alus lähti elokuussa laivueen kanssa Trincomaleehen. [1]

    HMS Sussex, HMS Caesar, HMS Carron ja HMS Cavalier suojasivat Intian 5. divisioonaa kuljettaneen joukkojenkuljetussaattueen Surabajaan. Vuonna 1946 alus palasi Britteinsaarille, jossa se siirrettiin reserviin. Alus päätettiin 1951 modernisoida, mutta työ eteni hitaasti ja aluksen modernisointi saatiin Rosythissä valmiiksi vasta 1960, jonka jälkeen se palautettiin palvelukseen 8. hävittäjälaivueeseen. [1]

    Alus palveli lähinnä Kaukoidässä. Se poistettiin palveluksesta kesäkuussa 1965 ja alus sijoitettiin poistolistalle. Aluksen aseistus riisuttiin Chathamissa, jonka jälkeen se myytiin 1966 BISCOlle. Alus hinattiin 6. tammikuuta 1967 romutuksesta vastanneelle Hughes Bolkowille Blythiin. [1]


    HMS Caesar (R 07)

    Arrived at Blyth to be broken up for scrap on 6 January 1967.

    Commands listed for HMS Caesar (R 07)

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    CommanderFromTo
    1Lt. Dudley Leslie Davenport, RN16 May 194414 Oct 1944
    2Capt. Godfrey Noel Brewer, DSO, RN14 Oct 1944late 1945

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    Notable events involving Caesar include:

    26 Oct 1944
    HMS Virulent (Lt. S.J. Fovargue, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Scapa Flow with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN), HMS Zealous (Cdr. R.F. Jessel, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Bute (T/A/Lt.Cdr. T. Costley, RNVR) and HMS Macbeth (A/Skr.Lt. R.C. Green, DSC, RNR). ( 1 )

    2 Nov 1944
    HMS Virulent (Lt. S.J. Fovargue, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Scapa Flow with HMCS Iroquois (Cdr. J.C. Hibbard DSC, RCN), HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN), HMS Lord Lloyd (T/A/Lt.Cdr. A. Flaaten, RNR) and HNoMS Risor. ( 2 )

    3 Nov 1944
    HMS Virulent (Lt. S.J. Fovargue, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Scapa Flow with HMS Mendip (Lt. P.D. Davey, RN) and HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN). ( 2 )

    7 Nov 1944
    HMS Virulent (Lt. S.J. Fovargue, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Scapa Flow with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN). ( 2 )

    23 Nov 1944
    HMS Vengeful (Lt. A.S. Melville-Ross, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises at/off Scapa Flow with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN), HMS Onslaught (Cdr. The Hon. A. Pleydell-Bouverie, RN), HMS Bardsey (T/Lt. H. Fritzen, RNR) and HNoMS Horten. ( 3 )

    27 Feb 1945
    HMS Seraph (Lt. T. Russell-Walling, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Loch Alsh with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN) and HMS Carron (Lt.Cdr. J.V. Wilkinson, DSC, RN). ( 4 )

    28 Feb 1945
    HMS Vengeful (Lt. A.S. Melville-Ross, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Loch Alsh with ships from the 24th and 18th Escort Groups and HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN) and HMS Carron (Lt.Cdr. J.V. Wilkinson, DSC, RN). ( 5 )

    6 Jun 1945
    HMS Unrivalled (Lt. R.P. Fitzgerald, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Plymouth with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN). ( 6 )

    13 Jun 1945
    HMS Sea Devil (Lt. D.W. Mills, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises at Scapa Flow with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN). ( 7 )

    14 Jun 1945
    HMS Sea Devil (Lt. D.W. Mills, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises at Scapa Flow with HMS Caesar (Capt. G.N. Brewer, DSO, RN). Also a practice attack was carried out on this destroyer.

    Later this day an RDF tracking exercises was carried out with HMS Belfast (Capt. R.M. Dick, CBE, DSC, RN). ( 7 )

    Media links

    1. ADM 173/19410
    2. ADM 173/19411
    3. ADM 173/19364
    4. ADM 173/19626
    5. ADM 173/20257
    6. ADM 173/20135
    7. ADM 173/19596

    ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


    Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome

    During his reign as dictator from 49-44 BC, Julius Caesar had a number of notable impacts on the city of Rome.

    One of the initial crises with which Caesar had to deal was widespread debt in Rome, especially after the outbreak of civil war when lenders demanded repayment of loans and real estate values collapsed. The result was a serious shortage of coinage in circulation as people hoarded whatever they had. Realizing the seriousness of the situation, Caesar ordered that property must be accepted for repayment at its pre-war value. He also reinstated a previous law which forbade the holding of more than 60,000 sesterces in cash by any one person. Caesar later cancelled all interest payments due since the beginning of 49 BC and permitted tenants to pay no rent for one year. While these measures still did not eliminate Rome's debt, Caesar's creative reaction to the problem helped to alleviate the debt in a way that satisfied both lenders and borrowers.

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    In addition to debt, Caesar had to deal with widespread unemployment in Rome. As a way to reduce the unemployment, the poor were offered a new life in Rome's overseas colonies. Those who stayed behind and depended on a monthly supply of free grain suffered when Caesar cut the grain rations in half, limiting the number of receivers to 150,000 when 320,000 had been collecting them. Caesar did, however, arrange for better supervision of the city's grain supply, and he also helped to improve access to grain from overseas by constructing a new harbour at Ostia and a new canal from Tarracina.

    The construction of new public buildings also served as a method of reducing unemployment in the city, but there was another motivation for building major projects in Rome: Caesar wanted to enhance the city's appearance after he realized how unimpressive Rome seemed in comparison to Alexandria, which was considered the greatest city of the Mediterranean. As a result, the Forum Julium was built to provide more space for lawcourts, and the Saepta Julia, situated on the Campus Martius, provided a large enclosure for voting. Caesar also ordered the construction of a new senate house after the previous one was used as Clodius's funeral pyre in 52 BC. Additionally, he sought to divert the Tiber River away from Rome to prevent flooding and to add to the city's area. He had also planned to build a grand temple of Mars, a theatre that would rival Pompey's, and a library that would rival Alexandria's. Caesar never saw any of the latter projects completed, however, as he was killed in 44 BC before any of them were finished.

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    Caesar's impact on the city of Rome continued even after his death when, in his will, he stipulated that his villa, the gardens surrounding it, and his art gallery all be made public. He also distributed his wealth to the people of Rome, leaving 300,000 sesterces to each citizen. Overall, Caesar sought to make Rome a cultural and educational centre of the Mediterranean world by attracting intellectuals, doctors, and lawyers to the city. Indeed, the actions that he took over his time in power showed his devotion to Rome and his wish to bring stability and prosperity to the city.


    Rome founded

    According to tradition, on April 21, 753 B.C., Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants. Actually, the Romulus and Remus myth originated sometime in the fourth century B.C., and the exact date of Rome’s founding was set by the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro in the first century B.C.

    According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.

    Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.


    Writing the First Long-Lived Extortion Law

    Caesar's Lex Iulia De Repetundis (The Extortion Law of the Julians) was not the first law against extortion: that is generally cited as the Lex Bembina Repetundarum, and usually attributed to Gaius Gracchus in 95 BCE. Caesar's extortion law remained a fundamental guide for the conduct of Roman magistrates for at least the next five centuries.

    Written in 59 BCE, the law restricted the number of gifts that a magistrate could receive during his term in a province and ensured that governors had their accounts balanced when they left.


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