Heekon YT-141 - History

Heekon YT-141 - History



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Heekon

(YT-141:dp.325;1. 100';b.25';dr.9'7")

Heekon (YT-141), a diesel-powered tug, was launched by Charleston Navy Yard 29 November 1939- sponsored by Miss Margaret L. Pence; and placed in service 22 March. 1940.

Heekon operated at Washington, D,C., during World War II. She was reclassified YTB-141, 16 May 1944 and YTM-141 in February 1962. Following the war she continued to serve as a harbor tug in the Potomac River Naval Command until being sold in early 1963 to Hughes Bros. & Co., New York.


Lǣce Hwā: Doctor Who in Anglo-Saxon England

The TARDIS occasionally found its way to early medieval England and these visits of the nation’s most beloved ‘Time Lord’ can also teach us something about Anglo-Saxon history and the Old English language. This post is the first of a series of three blogs that deal with the visits of BBC’s Doctor Who to Anglo-Saxon England.

Doctor Who in Anglo-Saxon England

Doctor Who is a science-fiction television programme, running from 1963 to 1989 and from 2005 to the present day. The programme revolves around the adventures of a mysterious ‘Time Lord’ who is known only as ‘The Doctor’, travelling through time and space in his TARDIS (which looks like a police box). In addition to his time travelling skills, the Doctor is also able to regenerate his body when near death, which explains why twelve different actors have been able to play this role in the TV series so far. Aside from time and space travel, the series is best known for its range of aliens and its horrible special effects. Incredibly popular, Doctor Who has become a significant part of British culture and has produced various spin-offs, in the form of magzines, novels, comic books and action figures.

Originally, Doctor Who was meant as a children’s TV show that would teach British history in a fun and entertaining way by bringing in aliens. What I am planning to do in the next few blogs is to use the series as it was intended: as a flashy guide to history in my case, Anglo-Saxon history and culture. In order to do so, I have tried to locate TV episodes, comics and short fiction stories that feature the Doctor travelling to Anglo-Saxon England (my overview is unlikely to be complete, given the ever-growing Doctor Who franchise recommendations are welcome, so please leave comments). We will see that the Doctor was present at many pivotal moments in Anglo-Saxon history met various historical individuals and, on occasion, prevented history from being changed forever. The current post deals with the Doctor’s encounters with Vikings and Anglo-Saxon celebrities the second post will deal with King Alfred the Great and the third and last post will focus on the Doctor’s involvement in the Norman Conquest.

Doctor Conkerer: The Doctor in fifth-century Britain

The story of Anglo-Saxon England usually begins in the fifth century, when the Angles, Saxons and Jutes migrated to Britain. Naturally, some of these fifth-century invaders had a run-in with a blue police box, as is revealed in the comic strip ‘Doctor Conkerer’ in Dr. Who Magazine, no. 162 (July 1990):

Doctor Conkerer © Dr. Who Magazine, no. 162 (July 1990)

In this comic, the seventh Doctor is playing a game of conkers (for which you need the seed of a horse-chestnut tree on a string – a conker). After he has run out of conkers, the Doctor decides to make a short stop to gather some more. The TARDIS lands in fifth-century Britain and the Doctor chances upon some ruffians shouting “YAARR!” and “RAAHH!”. Rather than meeting the Angles, Saxons or Jutes, as we might expect, he meets another group of Germanic invaders: the Vikings, some three hundred years before they actually set foot in Britain! Be that as it may, the Doctor witnesses these anachronistic Vikings capture a British boy and decides to come to the rescue. He burns the longships of the Vikings and knocks out Viking leader Olaf with a well-aimed strike of a conker:

Doctor Conkerer © Dr. Who Magazine, no. 162 (July 1990)

The Doctor frees the British boy and brings him back to his village. Upon leaving the scene, the Doctor says to himself “Brilliant game, conkers. Wonder who first came up with it!”. This turns out to be the boy rescued by the Doctor, who is seen explaining the game to his mates. This first visit of the Doctor to early medieval Britain is slightly disappointing in terms of its educational value, if only because of the anachronisms (aside from the anachronistic Vikings, the game of conkers dates back to the 19 th century).The next visit of the Doctor to early medieval Britain brings us into the territory of legend:

Shock reveal: The Doctor is Merlin!

According to the early medieval chroniclers Gildas (c. 500-570) and Bede (672/673-735), the Angles, Saxons and Jutes had been invited to Britain by the British King Vortigern, who required mercenaries to fight the invading Picts. A reference to this Vortigern is found in the TV episode ‘Battlefield’ (S26E01 1989) of Doctor Who, in which a spaceship (containing the body of King Arthur and his sword Excalibur) is found on the bottom of Lake Vortigern…

TARDIS materializes 4 kilometers away from Lake Vortigern © BBC

Like Vortigern, the legendary King Arthur is also associated with the invading Anglo-Saxons. Later medieval writers, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth, have assumed that it was King Arthur who led the Britons in the fight against the invaders from the Continent. This British resistance is one of the reasons why it took the Anglo-Saxons at least 150 years to conquer the area that is now known as England.

As legend would have it, King Arthur was aided by a mysterious man who could predict the future: Merlin. ‘Battlefield’ reveals that this Merlin is none other than a reincarnation of the Doctor, as becomes clear when the knight Ancelyn flies through the roof of a hotel and recognises the seventh Doctor:

ANCELYN: Merlin. Against all hope.
….
ACE: You’ve got it wrong, mate. This is the Doctor.
ANCELYN: Oh, he has many faces, but in my reckoning, he is Merlin.
DOCTOR: You recognise my face, then?
ANCELYN: No, not your aspect, but your manner that betrays you. Do you not ride the ship of time? Does it not deceive the senses being larger within than out? Merlin, cease these games

There you have it, the British resistance against the Anglo-Saxons may have had some extraterrestrial help!

Woden’s Warriors: The Doctor meets some real Vikings

After the Anglo-Saxons have migrated and conquered most of what is now known as England, they are converted to Christianity. These events, however, seem to have gone by unaffected by the Doctor. His next visit (aside from a picnic with Bede, see below), takes place when the Anglo-Saxons themselves are faced with an invasion: the Vikings (for real, this time).

In ‘Woden’s warriors’, published in TV Comic Annual 1976, the fourth Doctor and his companion Sarah Jane accidentally land in Viking Age Britain. As they wander about, they suddenly hear the sounds of a horn: the Vikings have found the TARDIS and they think it is a gift from Woden. In order to find out whether that is truly the case, the Viking leader Heekon sets fire to the police box and, noting that it does not burn, he is convinced that this ‘magic box’ will aid them in their battle against the (Anglo-)Saxons:

Woden’s warriors © TV Comic Annual 1976

The tide is not turned in the Vikings’ favour, however. The Saxons are prepared, since they have been forewarned by the Doctor and Sarah-Jane. The Vikings are put to flight and their boats are set aflame! Next, the Saxons celebrate their victory in ‘traditional style’, which means that Sarah-Jane is not allowed to eat before the men have finished. The Doctor chuckles: “Yes, there is a lot to be said for the Saxon view of a woman’s role”:

Woden’s warriors © TV Comic Annual 1976

I, for one, am not aware of any such rule having been in place in Anglo-Saxon England likely, this little scene is an attempt to show that rules that undermine a woman’s rights are ‘medieval’ and old-fashioned – Sarah-Jane’s repulsion seems in line with the second-wave feminism of the Seventies…

Who’s who in Anglo-Saxon England: The Doctor and Anglo-Saxon celebrities

Throughout the Doctor Who franchise, there are frequent references to historical figures that the Doctor had supposedly met. Some of these figures belong to Anglo-Saxon history. A prime example is the Venerable Bede (672/673-735), who once shared a salmon with the Doctor, as the fourth Doctor relates in the TV episode “The Talons of Weng-Chiang” (S14E06 1977):

I caught a salmon there [the River Fleet] once. Would have hung over the sides of this table. Shared it with the venerable Bede, he adored fish.

One wonders what Bede, a Northumbrian monk who probably never went far beyond the confines of the monasteries in Monkwearmouth and Jarrow (now: Bede’s World), was doing in London at the time! Anyway, Bede’s predilection for fish may explain why the monk felt it necessary to point out that Britain “is remarkable also for rivers abounding in fish, and plentiful springs. It has the greatest plenty of salmon and eels” (Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, bk. 1, ch. 1).


The Immune Landscape of Visceral Adipose Tissue During Obesity and Aging

Obesity and aging represent major health burdens to the global adult population. Both conditions promote the development of associated metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. The visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a site that becomes dysfunctional during obesity and aging, and plays a significant role during their pathophysiology. The changes in obese and aging VAT are now recognized to be partly driven by a chronic local inflammatory state, characterized by immune cells that typically adopt an inflammatory phenotype during metabolic disease. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the immune cell landscape of the VAT during lean, obese, and aged conditions, highlighting their similarities and differences. We also briefly discuss possible linked mechanisms that fuel obesity- and age-associated VAT dysfunction.

Keywords: aging diabetes immunology immunometabolism insulin resistance metabolism obesity visceral adipose tissue.

Copyright © 2020 Khan, Chan, Revelo and Winer.

Figures

Alterations in the visceral adipose…

Alterations in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) immune cells during obesity and aging.…


US Navy must rename warships that have 'racist' and Confederate names, policy task force says

"Certain Navy ship names have been highlighted by Congress and in the media for connections to confederate or white supremacist ideologies," Task Force One Navy said in its report, published on Wednesday.

The 141-page report called for a review to "identify assets honoring those associated with the Confederacy and identify assets named after racist, derogatory or culturally insensitive persons, events or language."

"This initiative is an opportunity to honor and name Navy assets for Naval heroes from all classes, races, genders and backgrounds."

The shake-up will likely affect the guided-missile cruiser Chancellorsville, which takes its name from the 1863 Civil War battle that was won by the Confederacy.

Also in line for a name change is the aircraft carrier John C. Stennis, called after the former senator who campaigned against racial equality.

"Stennis's record championing white supremacy is long," retired Lieutenant Commander Reuben Keith Green argued in an essay last year, as he made the case for the ship to be renamed.

In total, the new report makes some 56 recommendations to Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Mike Gilday, who called for the task force to be set up after the death of George Floyd, a black man who died in May, 2020, after a Minneapolis Police officer knelt on his neck for several minutes while arresting him.

The report's other recommendations include: service-wide implicit-bias training, better outreach to "underrepresented communities that appeal to Generation Z minorities" and using artificial intelligence (AI) to minimize bias during recruitment.

It also recommends changing the wording for grooming standards by removing subjective language, which may result in the perception of racial bias.

A similar move was taken by the US Army last week, which announced it was relaxing its uniform policy, in the name of "equity, inclusion and diversity."

Its new rules mean that female soldiers will be allowed to sport earrings and lipstick, while service personnel of both genders will be allowed to paint their nails.


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4. Discussion

4.1. Perturbations of the Global Carbon Cycle

[9] Although the carbon isotopic signatures of carbonate might be altered during diagenetic processes, it is safe to assume that the δ 13 Ccarb of our samples should mainly reflect the original signals. First, the carbon isotope compositions of micritic carbonate are regarded as being resistant to diagenetic influence [ Marshall, 1992 Rosales et al., 2001 Saltzman, 2002 Joachimski et al., 2002 Buggisch and Joachimski, 2006 ]. Second, alterations of original δ 13 Ccarb signatures usually occur in the rocks containing soil organic matter [ Allan and Matthews, 1982 Lohmann, 1988 ], or in organic carbon rich sediments, such as black shale [ Joachimski et al., 2002 Buggisch and Joachimski, 2006 ]. In both cases, δ 13 Ccarb would shift to low values because the CO2 derived from these sources is 13 C depleted. The absence of organic rich or shaly horizons in both the Dongcun and Yangdi sections suggests fewer alterations of carbon isotope composition. Third, except for methanogenesis, no diagenetic process is known to result in an enrichment of 13 C during recrystallization [ Buggisch and Joachimski 2006 ]. Therefore, in most cases, the positive excursions in δ 13 C of carbonate rocks are representative of the original signatures. Finally, the comparable isotope pattern observed in the Dongcun and Yangdi sections, which are deposited under different environmental conditions, also supports little alteration of primary signals [ Buggisch and Joachimski, 2006 ].

[10] For the organic carbon isotope, the respiratory remineralization of organic matter in sediment column under oxic condition can produce an enrichment in 13 C. This enrichment increases in sediments deposited beneath an anoxic water column [ Hayes et al., 1989 Gong and Hollander, 1997 Fischer et al., 1998 ], where it can reach as high as 3‰. In the Dongcun and Yangdi sections, δ 13 Corg shows an increasing pattern with the decrease of oxygenation level at the beginning, but it still increases after the water mass return to oxic condition [ Xu et al., 2008 ], indicating respiration of organic matter could not be the controlling factor for the δ 13 Corg shifts.

[11] An obvious decrease in Δ 13 C occurs near the F-F boundary in both the Dongcun and Yangdi sections due to a larger amplitude shift ofδ 13 Corg than δ 13 Ccarb (Figure 3). This differs from the previous observations on other sections [ Joachimski et al., 2002 Chen et al., 2005 ]. Early paired analysis on the Berner section showed that the onset of δ 13 Corg excursion predated that of δ 13 Ccarbaround the F-F boundary [ Joachimski, 1997 ]. The later organic carbon isotope analyses on the Kowala section showed that the δ 13 Corg displayed similar amplitude excursion with the δ 13 Ccarb shifts measured in other sections [ Joachimski et al., 2002 ]. Based on the above evidence, Joachimski et al. [2002] proposed that the high atmospheric and oceanic CO2 concentrations of the Devonian resulted in the maximum photosynthetic fractionation, and thus any change in CO2 concentration would not affect isotope fractionation during photosynthesis. However, the obvious Δ 13 C excursion, together with larger amplitude shift of δ 13 Corg than δ 13 Ccarb measured in the end Ordovician [ Young et al., 2008 ] and Early Silurian [ Cramer and Saltzman, 2007 ] suggested that photosynthetic fractionation might not reach maximum in the late Devonian, because the atmospheric CO2 levels of the former are much higher than the latter [ Banner and Hanson, 1990 Berner and Kothavala, 2001 ]. Furthermore, the conclusion of Joachimski et al. [2002] relies on an assumption that the carbon isotope records from different regions reflect a global carbon cycle change. This assumption, however, is potentially flawed, because the carbon isotope composition of dissolved carbon and organic matter is controlled not only by global but also by local carbon cycle [ Panchuk et al., 2006 ]. Factors controlling local carbon cycle, such as circulation patterns, changes in primary productivity and phytoplankton community, can lead to carbon isotope variations [ Freeman and Hayes, 1992 Laws et al., 1997 Bidigare et al., 1997 Popp et al., 1989 Hayes et al., 1999 Des Marais, 2001 Panchuk et al., 2006 ]. Circulation patterns influence the exchange rates of dissolved inorganic carbon between water mass, particularly in regions of epeiric seas [ Panchuk et al., 2006 ]. Different species of phytoplankton, even the same species with different growth rate, might have different photosynthetic fractionations [ Freeman and Hayes, 1992 Francois et al., 1993 Laws et al., 1997 Bidigare et al., 1997 Popp et al., 1989 Hayes et al., 1999 ], causing variations of δ 13 Corg. As a result, the values and patterns of carbon isotope compositions might be different among various regions due to the difference in signal strength of the regional carbon cycle. This point is supported by the inconsistence in the amplitude of δ 13 Ccarbshifts around the F-F boundary measured in different regions. For example, at the Cinquefoil Mountain section, Alberta, Canada [ Wang et al., 1996 ], the excursion is from 1‰ to 5‰, whereas it is about 3‰ in some sections from Europe [ Joachimski et al., 2002 ]. In addition, there is a potential for partial alteration of original isotope signals during deposition and diagenetic processes. For these reasons, it is more reasonable to use the whole trend of the difference between δ 13 Ccarb and δ 13 Corg of the same stratum to decipher the carbon cycle change [ Cramer and Saltzman, 2007 ], and the consistent pattern of carbon isotope records from various sections should have a global significance. In the Kowala section, amplitude of the δ 13 Corgexcursion around the F-F boundary is not only larger than theδ 13 Ccarb, but also larger than the difference between the maximum and minimum values of δ 13 Ccarb for all samples [ Joachimski et al., 2002 ]. Furthermore, the δ 13 Ccarb shifts recorded in the Plucki, Psie Górki, and Dębnik sections (around or less than +2‰), which are located in the same area with the Kowala section (around Kielce), are also less than the δ 13 Corg excursion recorded in the Kowala section [ Racki et al., 2002 ]. Therefore, the carbon isotope records from Poland also support a decrease in Δ 13 C around the F-F boundary, and indicate that the photosynthetic fractionation might not reach maximum in the late Devonian.

[12] In the Baisha and Fuhe sections, Δ 13 C displays high-frequency vibrations across the F-F boundary [ Chen et al., 2005 ]. However, this pattern of Δ 13 C is caused by several negative shifts of δ 13 Ccarb. As suggested by Buggisch and Joachimski [2006] , the lower values observed during the increase of δ 13 Ccarb are usually diagenetic signatures. In addition, the molecular isotope records [ Joachimski et al., 2002 ], which are believed to be less affected by diagenesis, do not show negative shifts during the period of δ 13 Ccarb increase. More importantly, the Δ 13 C in the Fuhe section displays a decreasing trend at the F-F boundary, if the abnormal negative values ofδ 13 Ccarb are discarded (Figure 3).

[13] Summarily, the carbon isotope records from south China (Dongcun, Yangdi, Fuhe) and Poland (Kowala, Psie Górki, Plucki, and Dębnik) show a similar pattern near the F-F boundary, which is characterized by a larger amplitude excursion ofδ 13 Corg than δ 13 Ccarb, indicating that the decrease of Δ 13 C might have a global significance.

[14] The larger amplitude shifts of δ 13 Corg compared to δ 13 Ccarb and its resultant Δ 13 C decrease could be caused by the changes of atmospheric CO2 level [ Bidigare et al., 1997 ], and/or kinetic isotope effect from varying metabolic pathways, as well as the change in dominant sources of marine sedimentary organic matter, particularly the input of terrestrial organic matter [ Sackett and Thompson, 1962 Hinga et al., 1994 Hayes et al., 1999 Kienast et al., 2001 ].

[15] The input of terrestrial organic matter could not interpret the δ 13 Corg shifts observed in this study. The Frasnian sequences of the Dongcun and Yangdi sections were deposited under different sedimentary environments [ Chen et al., 2001 Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ]. The Dongcun section was deposited under pelagic depositional condition, while the Yangdi section was deposited under a platform environment. Theoretically, the influx of terrestrial organic matter into the Yangdi section should be larger than that of the Dongcun section. Therefore, δ 13 Corg values of the Yangdi section would be higher than those of the Dongcun section if the terrestrial organic matter were the dominant source of the sedimentary organic carbon, because the δ 13 C of terrestrial organic materials is often higher than that of contemporaneous marine organics. However, the fact is that there are no observable differences in δ 13 Corg between the Dongcun and Yangdi sections. Furthermore, the maximum values of δ 13 Corg in the Dongcun (−24.08‰) and Yangdi sections (−24.05‰) are larger than that of the Devonian terrestrial organic matter (−24.8‰ to −26.8‰) [ Maynard, 1981 ]. The low δ 13 Corg of terrestrial organic matter can hardly explain the larger δ 13 Corgvalues near the F-F boundary.

[16] Though changes in metabolic pathway biomass community and growth rate have a potential for causing δ 13 Corg shifts, carbon isotope analysis of total organic matter has been shown to faithfully record the original isotopic trend when compared with compound specific δ 13 Corganalysis of short-chain n-alkanes as well as acyclic isoprenoids pristane, phytane, and hopane from identical samples [ Joachimski et al., 2002 ]. The baseline values of the different biomarkers varied by a few per mille but the trends shown were practically identical, suggesting that Δ 13 C changes cannot be explained by variation in metabolic pathway and biomass community [ Cramer and Saltzman, 2007 ]. Increased growth rate of the phytoplankton can also cause positive excursions of δ 13 Corg. The increased growth rate often increases primary productivities, leading to high influx of organic matter into sediments. The previous analysis on the Dongcun section showed that the carbon isotope shifts around the F-F boundary mainly resulted from the development of reducing conditions (Figure 2) [ Xu et al., 2008 ]. Therefore, the concentrations of organic matter would increase at the F-F boundary if the growth rate were the major factor forδ 13 Corg shifts, because both reducing conditions and increased productivity favor for organic matter burial. However, there is no significant changes in organic matter contents during the interval with δ 13 Corg shifts (Figure 2), suggesting changes in growth rate should not the major cause for the δ 13 Corg changes. In addition, a study of a model versus measurement also indicates that the concentrations of dissolved CO2 play a major role in the changes of δ 13 Corg, though growth rate and/or other biotic factors might cause some of the shifts in δ 13 Corg [ Rau et al., 1997 ].

[17] Most important, the large amplitude excursion of δ 13 Corg and its resulting Δ 13 C decrease are considered to be the two typical characteristics of the carbon isotope variations caused by lowering pCO2 level [ Popp et al., 1989 Freeman and Hayes, 1992 Hayes et al., 1999 ]. The isotopic fractionation of 13 C during photosynthesis is a function of extracellular and intracellular CO2 concentrations [ Popp et al., 1989 Freeman and Hayes, 1992 Hayes et al., 1999 Pagani et al., 1999 ] and the photosynthetic fractionation factor is negatively correlated with atmospheric CO2 level [ Popp et al., 1989 ]. As a result, δ 13 Corg would display a larger amplitude excursion than δ 13 Ccarb with decreasing atmospheric CO2 level, and thus Δδ 13 C shifts to negative.

[18] Consequently, the decrease of Δ 13 C caused by larger amplitude of δ 13 Corg than δ 13 Ccarb should mainly reflect the changes of atmospheric CO2 level rather than the variations of metabolic pathways and/or dominant organic matter sources.

4.2. Associations of Carbon Cycle Change With Mass Extinction

[19] As reviewed by Sandberg et al. [2002] , the F-F mass extinction had a close association with sea level changes. A stepwise extinction began with the severe sea level fall and the ultimate mass extinction took place well during severe eustatic falls that immediately followed major eustatic rises. These rapid changes of sea level are documented not only at the Steinbruch Schmidt section in a deep water, submarine-rise setting in Germany, but also at sections in inner shelf and outer shelf and slope settings in Belgium, Nevada, Utah [ Sandberg et al., 2002 ]. This evidence, together with the worldwide positive δ 13 Ccarbexcursion, suggests that the F-F mass extinction might be associated with both the sea level and global carbon cycle changes.

[20] The detail eustatic changes and conodont evolution across the F-F boundary were reconstructed based on the records from the Dongcun section [ Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ]. The sea level curve drawn based on the integrated analysis of biofacies, lithofacies, and sequence stratigraphy in the Dongcun section [ Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ] is comparable with the most widely accepted sea level curve produced by Sandberg et al. [2002] , further supporting that the records in the Dongcun section have a global signification. These data, together with the carbon isotope records, make it possible for scrutinizing the associations of the carbon cycle changes with biomass extinction through analyzing the phase differences among the global carbon cycle change, sea level change, and conodont extinctions.

[21] The conodont extinction displays a close association with the eustatic changes around the F-F boundary in the Dongcun section [ Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ] (Figure 4). In the early linguiformis zone, Palmatolepis, a pelagic genus which favored the farthest offshore and deep water setting [ Sandberg and Ziegler, 1996 ], is dominant with an average more than 85% of total fauna, indicating a typical palmatolepid biofacies. Based on the analysis of sequence stratigraphy, this interval is a highstand systems tract, corresponding to the upper part of eustatic rise Event 5 of Sandberg et al. [2002] [ Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ]. Then the “Upper KW Horizon” (−2.04 to −1.84 m) event suddenly happened, the facies instantaneously changed into dark limestone, indicating the beginning of remarkable sea level fall (Figure 4). A thick-bedded shallow water limestone developed from −2.0 to 0 m. The fauna in this interval is a typical reduced or impoverished in Frasnian fauna. Conodonts are low in diversities, scarce in number of individuals, and all are surviving taxa from the underlying sequence. The deposition from −2.0 to −0.8 m corresponds to Event 7 of Sandberg et al. [2002] (Figure 4). The final extinction of Palmatolepis linguiformis is at –0.82 m, corresponding to the beginning of the more rapid shallowing (Event 8 of Sandberg et al. [2002] ) (Figure 4). The stratum of −0.4 to 0 m is an important interval of sea level changes, indicating the most pronounced shallowing facies. No conodonts have been found at the F-F boundary this interval could actually be a big extinction, corresponding to Event 9 of Sandberg et al. [2002] (Figure 4). From the base of the triangulariszone, the strata thin upward and consist of dark thin-bedded limestones, representing a relatively rapid sea level rise (Figure 4). From the late triangularis zone to the early crepida zone, the facies changes into deeper water, but is still much shallower than the depositional facies below −1.98 m [ Wang and Ziegler, 2002 ].

[22] The direct effect of marine regression is reducing the habitat areas on continental shelves for shallow marine species. However, this assumption can hardly explain species loss of terrestrial ecosystem because the areal extent and habitat of the terrestrial realm should increase with the marine regression [ Boulter et al., 1988 Raymond and Metz, 1992 , 1995 ] In addition, Jablonski [1986] suggested that only 13% of modern families would become extinct even if all the modern shelf biota were eliminated. Thus, the sea level fall alone could not cause the F-F mass extinction.

[23] Figure 4shows the associations of conodonts extinction with the carbon cycle, eustatic change, and the detailed evolution of condonts across the F-F boundary in the Dongcun section. The onset of eustatic fall postdates the beginnings ofδ 13 Ccarb and Δ 13 C shift, and the largest marine regression occurs during the interval with lowest Δ 13 C values (Figure 4). These characteristics provide key evidence for interpreting the relationship between sea level change and increased organic carbon burials. The increased organic carbon burial can lead to decrease in atmospheric CO2 level [ Kump and Arthur, 1999 ], which is commonly taken to be the main driver of climate change on geological timescales [ Berner and Kothavala, 2001 Royer et al., 2004 ]. The lower pCO2 would lead to temperature decrease through weakening greenhouse effect. With temperature decrease, an ice cap would develop in high altitude and latitude, causing sea level fall. This postulation is supported by the temperature decrease indicated by the δ 18 O of conodont apatite across the F-F boundary [ Joachimski and Buggisch, 2002 ]. Significant temperature decline would decimate reefal and tropical ecosystems, as species inhabiting these places have no refuge against cold. In contrast, the high-latitude species could migrate to lower latitudes and maintain their tolerable temperature. Each of these expected patterns of ecological selectivity in survival are observed in the F-F event [ McGhee, 1996 ], suggesting that the temperature decline should be an important factor for the mass extinction.

[24] For the causes of the increased carbon burial around the F-F boundary, our previous high-resolution investigations [ Xu et al., 2008 ] revealed that the reducing conditions predate the onset of the carbon isotope excursions, suggesting that the two positive carbon isotope shifts are likely caused by the expansion of anoxic conditions. The low Al/(Al+Fe) ratio across the F-F boundary leads the U/Al and Cu/Al anomalies in timing, implying that this anoxic event might have resulted from a long-term cumulative effect of intense hydrothermal-volcanic activities. Therefore, long-term cumulative effect of intense hydrothermal-volcanic activities lead to development and expansion of anoxic water mass, which in turn cause increased organic carbon burial and thus atmospheric CO2 level decrease.

[25] In the late rhenana zone, a positive δ 13 Ccarb excursion has been detected on the worldwide. This positive excursion, together with organic rich sediments (lower Kellwasser horizon), indicates another perturbation of global carbon cycle in the late rhenana zone. However, no obvious positive shift of δ 13 Corg has been detected in the late rhenana zone in most previous studies. Joachimski et al. [2002] suggest the δ 13 Corg maximum might be missed due to the broader sampling interval. The carbon isotope records in the Dongcun and Yangdi sections provide critical evidence for the above postulation. The carbon isotope records in the Dongcun and Fuhe sections display a similar pattern in the late rhenanazone with that at the F-F boundary, which is characterized by a relatively larger positive shift inδ 13 Corg than δ 13 Ccarb (Figure 2) and negative Δ 13 C shift (Figure 3). These characteristics suggest that a perturbation of carbon cycle like that at the F-F boundary might occur in the laterhenana zone.


Acknowledgements

We thank F. Pacheco, R. Almeida and D. Torsten for searching data to improve our database. We are grateful to A. Cimbleris for inspiring us with insights connecting science and societal needs and to R. Mendonça and J. Ometto for critical discussion and reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from FURNAS Centrais Elétricas and from the Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT). V.L.M.H. and F.R. are partially supported by Conselho Nacional de Investigação Científica e Tecnológica (CNPq), Brasil.


Heekon YT-141 - History

Introduction to the Yellowstone Trail

The Yellowstone Trail was the first transcontinental automobile highway in the United States through the northern tier of states from Washington through Massachusetts. Yet too few people are aware of its existence or its social, political and economic effects on either the local communities or the nation.

This transcontinental route was conceived by J.W. Parmley of Ipswitch, SD, in 1912. The automobile was just becoming popular but intercity roads were plagued with sand, potholes and mud. Bicyclists of the previous decade, organized as the Wheelmen and counting thousands as members, had been pushing state and federal governments for years for roads. Yet, in 1912, there were few good, all weather roads, no useful long distant roads and no government marked routes. Railroads had been the dominant, almost sole, method of travel. But railroads were losing their allure because of their monopolistic freight rate- setting and the inconvenience of their schedules.

The privacy and autonomy of the automobile was not to be denied.

The Yellowstone Trail developed in parallel with the nationwide effort to improve roads. The burden of financing roads gradually moved from the local landowner and township up the levels of government until the federal government, the states, the counties and the townships shared the cost. The burgeoning number of autos resulted in a demand for roads to drive them on, first for pleasure and then for crucial societal purposes: for doctors to get to patients, for farm products to get to the railroads, and for military purposes.

Parmley and his business colleagues wanted a good road from Ipswich to Aberdeen, SD, 25 miles away. The “can do” pioneer spirit of the time immediately emerged and in a few weeks time the intent had expanded to include a good road to Mobridge, SD, then to Hettinger ND, then to the great tourist destination, Yellowstone National Park. Soon, it was understood that under their leadership there was to be “a good road from Plymouth Rock to Puget Sound.”

The Yellowstone Trail Association was formed in October 1912 and was active until 1930. The creation of the Yellowstone Trail was a grassroots effort, not a governmental effort, and not the effort of a few wealthy business leaders, as was the Lincoln Highway through the Lincoln Highway Association, which was formed the next year. A headquarters for the Yellowstone Trail Association was established in Minneapolis, although meetings were held across the country with local representatives. Membership was offered to delegates from towns all along the route. These people raised money locally, through a system of "assessments" and often headed local volunteer groups to mark the route with either yellow stones or the official yellow circle and arrow of the Association. State or regional meetings were held in communities along the route each year to provide coordination for the Association and inspiration to attract tourists through their towns.

The Yellowstone Trail Association did not build roads. It lobbied for "good roads" in every level of government, it provided instructions to local people for the construction and maintenance of roads, it promoted cross- country tourist traffic, it marked the route of the Trail, it provided the first maps of the Trail, and generally raised the interest in using the automobile for other than local travel. It was an organization composed of businessmen/Chamber of Commerce people in little towns who wished to boost their town's economy by being on a well- used road. So they would improve local roads, but not build them.

Trail Days were held with picnics, etc. to make the work of "dragging" the dirt road more fun. Stores would close so all would go out to participate. The Yellowstone Trail Association had local chapters in towns and state chapters to oversee routing. Local "routing committee men" went out into their counties to find the best roads available and then talk county governments into spending tax dollars on that route. They then persuaded little towns to join the organization and to pay a small fee to be included on the route publicity. Usually, roads near railways were selected, and frequently were routed through towns on the street adjacent to the railroad station. The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad in particular, was selected because it went where the founders of the Trail wanted the Trail to go. The railroads had already selected the most efficient routes and local roads already existed near the railways, so as one reads the history of the Yellowstone Trail, one reads the history of the Milwaukee Road.

Montana residents immediately grasped the potential of the Trail. Many people and locations along the Trail in Montana provide interesting tales. J. E. Prindle of the little, but ambitious, cattle shipping town of Ismay became a force in the Association. Billings was the seat of regional meetings of the Yellowstone Trail Association. Old original sections of the Trail still exist in travelable condition in several locations: between Ismay and Fallon, between Livingston and Gardiner near Yankee Jim’s toll road north of the entrance to the Yellowstone National Park, between Three Forks and Butte, between Hunter’s Hot Springs and Billings, along the Camel’s Hump near Superior, and on the Randolph Creek/Mullan Pass road over the Bitterroots.

In 1918 Wisconsin became the first state to number its highways and in 1926 the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) established and numbered interstate routes (US route numbers), selecting the best roads in each state which could be connected to provide a rational network of "federal" highways. With the numbering of roads, the need for names decreased. And the need for colored markers to mark the named roads ceased. Then came the Depression. Merchants could no longer afford to pay dues to a road association. State maps replaced the need for associations. The Yellowstone Trail and all other named trails lost their allure to the modern Highway 12, or 29, or 10. Its major influence died in 1929- 30 with the original Yellowstone Trail Association. A replacement organization, Yellowstone Highway Association, operated marginally until about 1939.

Through all of this, the Yellowstone Trail Association persisted, acting much as the AAA does today. They published maps and brochures and set up tents along busy places on the Trail to hand out these materials. People telephoned the Trail Association before they planned a trip to see what roads were passable. This route is truly a piece of history and a national treasure.


Winston Churchill has as much blood on his hands as the worst genocidal dictators, claims Indian politician

An Indian politician has put Winston Churchill in the same category as some of “the worst genocidal dictators” of the 20th century because of his complicity in the Bengal Famine.

Dr Shashi Tharoor, whose new book Inglorious Empire chronicles the atrocities of the British Empire, argued the former British Prime Minister’s reputation as a great wartime leader and protector of freedom was wholly miscast given his role in the Bengal famine which saw four million Bengalis starve to death.

In 1943, up to four million Bengalis starved to death when Churchill diverted food to British soldiers and countries such as Greece while a deadly famine swept through Bengal.

During an appearance at the Melbourne writers’ festival broadcast by ABC, the Indian MP noted Churchill’s orders related to Australian ships carrying wheat at Indian docks.

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“This is a man the British would have us hail as an apostle of freedom and democracy, when he has as much blood on his hands as some of the worst genocidal dictators of the 20th century,” he said to applause.

He added: “People started dying and Churchill said well it’s all their fault anyway for breeding like rabbits. He said ‘I hate the Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion’.”

Dr Tharoor, a former Under-Secretary of the UN, also gave an extensive description of British colonial exploitation and annihilation of traditional Indian industries such as textiles which reduced it to “a poster child of third world poverty” by the time the British left in 1947.

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

1 /5 The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

1. Boer concentration camps

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

2. Amritsar massacre

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

3. Partitioning of India

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

4. Mau Mau Uprising

The 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire

5. Famines in India

He said the “excuse that apologists [of British empire] like to make is, it’s not our fault, you just missed the bus for the industrial revolution. Well, we missed the bus because you threw us under its wheels.”

This is not the first time Dr Tharoor has voiced his frustrations about the way Churchill is remembered by the history books. In March, he argued the former PM who led Britain to victory in World War Two should be remembered alongside the most prominent dictators of the twentieth century.

“This [Churchill] is the man who the British insist on hailing as some apostle of freedom and democracy," the author told UK Asian at a launch for his book. "When to my mind he is really one of the more evil rulers of the 20th century only fit to stand in the company of the likes of Hitler, Mao and Stalin".

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He added: “Churchill has as much blood on his hands as Hitler does. Particularly the decisions that he personally signed off during the Bengal Famine when 4.3 million people died because of the decisions he took or endorsed."

"Not only did the British pursue its own policy of not helping the victims of this famine which was created by their policies. Churchill persisted in exporting grain to Europe, not to feed actual ‘Sturdy Tommies’, to use his phrase, but add to the buffer stocks that were being piled up in the event of a future invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia”.

“Ships laden with wheat were coming in from Australia docking in Calcutta and were instructed by Churchill not to disembark their cargo but sail on to Europe,” he added. “And when conscience-stricken British officials wrote to the Prime Minister in London pointing out that his policies were causing needless loss of life all he could do was write peevishly in the margin of the report, ‘Why hasn’t Gandhi died yet?'"

Dr Tharoor first rose to prominence after his heartfelt speech at Oxford Union, discussing the economic toll British rule took on India, in July 2015 went viral.


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