Battle of Friedberg, 24 August 1796

Battle of Friedberg, 24 August 1796



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Battle of Friedberg, 24 August 1796

The battle of Friedberg (24 August 1796) was one of the last major successes during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany in the summer of 1796, and forced the Austrians under General Latour to abandon the line of the River Lech. Moreau had crossed the Rhine in late June, and had fought a series of engagements that had forced the Austrians to abandon the area west of the Black Forest. The Archduke Charles, the overall Austrian commander on the Rhine, was also faced with a second invasion further north (Jourdan). Charles decided to pull both of his armies back towards the Danube, where he would combine and defeat the two French armies in turn.

On 11 August, having reached the Danube, Charles though he saw a chance to defeat Moreau with the troops at his disposal, but his attack was repulsed (battle of Neresheim, 11 August 1796). In the aftermath of this defeat Charles decided to join his northern army and concentrate on the defeat of Jourdan. General Latour was left in command of a reduced Army of the Upper Rhine, with orders to prevent Moreau from moving north to join with Jourdan.

Moreau was well aware that the best chance of a French victory would be for him to do just that, but his orders were to operate on the southern bank of the Danube to prevent the Austrians from reinforcing the troops facing Napoleon in Italy. At a council of war held in the Archduke's former headquarters at Augsburg on 23 August Moreau and his three corps commanders (Desaix, Saint-Cyr and Ferino) decided to mount a diversionary raid into Bavaria, in the hope that this might help both Jourdan and Bonaparte. The first step in this campaign would be the crossing of the Lech, which flows just to the east of Augsburg.

Latour spread his reduced army out over a very wide area. He took up a strong central position on the plateau at Friedberg, just to the east of Augsburg, with 6,000 men. The left wing, 12,000 men under General Froelich, was posted at Schongau, thirty miles to the south, and stretched out much further towards the mountains of Vorarlberg and the approaches to the Tyrol. The right wing, 7,500 men under General Mercantini, was spread out along the Lower Lech between Rain, close to the junction of the Lech and the Danube, and a place identified as Pesenbruck in early French sources (possibly Pessenburgheim, just to the south of Rain). There was also a detachment at Ingolstadt on the Danube

Moreau decided to cross the Lech in three places. Ferino was to cross at Hanstetten, two miles to the south of Augsburg, Saint-Cyr was to cross opposite the village of Lechnausen, on the east bank opposite Augsburg. Desaix, with part of the left wing, was to cross the ford at Langweid, seven miles to the north, and prevent Mercantini from interfering around Augsburg.

In mid August the Lech was swollen by melt waters coming down from the Tyrol. This meant that some of the fords were more dangerous that normal. After Desaix, his staff, and some cavalry had crossed the ford at Langweid he decided not to risk bringing the rest of his corps across. Ferino was more successful. The first French troops across the Lech were the 3rd demi-brigade, the 89th line, the 4th dragoons and part of the 8th Hussars, who crossed close to Hanstetten. This force then captured the village of Kissing (four miles to the south of Friedberg) and the heights of Moringen, and then advanced towards Ottmaring, two miles to the south-east of Friedberg. For the moment their advance was stopped by two Austrian infantry battalions and eight cavalry squadrons posted at Ottmaring. At the same time other French cavalry forces advanced north along the river towards Saint Afra and the bridge at Augsburg. In the centre the 21st demi-brigade forced its way across the fords in front of Lechhausen. Saint-Cyr then began to repair the bridges over the river, although adjutant general Houel drowned attempting to cross the river.

Some modern sources place the crossing the Lech on 22 August, two days before the battle of Friedberg, but that simply doesn't make sense. By the end of the river crossing the French were present at Lechhausen, two miles to the north west of Friedberg and were approaching Ottmaring, two miles to the south east. If these events took place on 22 August then Latour would have had a full day to strength his position or to retreat, and wouldn't have been caught out in the way that he was. Early French sources also place the crossing on 24 August.

After crossing the river Moreau decided to attack Latour's position at Friedberg. Ferino, with the French right close to Ottmaring already threatened to outflank the Austrian left. Desaix on the French left sent two brigades along the road north-east to Neuburg, partly to prevent Latour escaping in that direction and partly to prevent Mercantini from interfering. Finally Saint-Cyr was to attack the front of the Friedberg plateau.

The French attack worked as planned. Duhesme's division from Saint-Cyr's corps drove in the Austrian centre, while La Roche's division of Ferino's corps captured Ottmaring. Latour realised that he was close to being trapped and ordered a retreat. By now the road north-east to Ratisbon was threatened by Desaix, while Ferrino at Ottmaring blocked the route to Munich. The Austrians attempted to fight their way past La Roche's men, but failed, and Latour was forced to retreat across country between the two roads. The Austrians suffered 800 casualties during this fighting and the French took 1,200 prisoners.

Over the next few days Moreau continued to advance, but while he had been defeating Latour at Friedberg, the Archduke Charles was defeated Jourdan at Amberg. Jourdan was forced to begin a costly retreat back to the Rhine, and when Moreau learnt of this he too was forced to retrace his steps.

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Honoré Théodore Maxime Gazan de la Peyrière (October 29, 1765 &ndash April 9, 1845) was a French general who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Count Ignác Gyulay de Marosnémeti et Nádaska, Ignácz Gyulay, Ignaz Gyulai, or Ignjat Đulaj (11 September 1763 &ndash 11 November 1831) was a Hungarian military officer, joined the army of Habsburg Austria, fought against Ottoman Turkey, and became a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars.


Napoleon Battles

The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century. Many believe that the battle prevented France from invading England. However, by the time it was fought, Napoleon had abandoned his plans to invade southern England and instead was successfully fighting in Germany against Britain's allies.

Sending for immediate reinforcement, Lannes camped near the enemy positions.

Throughout the night new units moved up until French forces numbered at least 50,000, more men were on the way ensuring Napoleon Bonaparte would have some 90,000 men available.

The initial French move was to push the Prussians into open ground, where the advantage of numbers would be telling, and while the resistance was strong it was eventually achieved.

Hohenloe urgently sent for assistance from Ruchel's nearby 15,000 men and hoped to hold on until they arrived.

Meanwhile, all of the good work done by marshals Augereau and Lannes was almost undone by the impatient Marshal Ney who launched an unauthorised assault in the centre.

Neither side could believe the stupidity of the assault and soon Ney was in danger of being swamped by Prussian cavalry.

Fortunately, for the fiery marshal, Lannes, Bertrand and massed French cavalry intervened before the trap could shut.

At 1pm, Bonaparte ordered a general advance and within two hours the exhausted Prussians gave way, fleeing the field and trying to avoid the sabres of Marshal Murat's horsemen.

France France Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Austria

Casualties and losses
400 1,800, 17 guns

The treaties made Napoleon Master of the Continent. All major continental nations were either annexed to France, Allied with France or were a friendly nuetral.

Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrians, Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.

One of the most important military engagements of the Napoleonic Wars and ended in a decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle virtually spelled the destruction of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France.

Peace Treaty of Schönbrunn (result of Wagram Battle) meant the loss of one sixth of the Austrian Empire's subjects, along with significant territories.

the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden led by the Russian Tsar Alexander I and prince Schwarzenberg decisively defeated the French army of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, at Leipzig, in Saxony. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle marked the culmination of the autumn campaign of 1813 during the German campaign and involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.

The treaty was intended to draw the powers of the Sixth Coalition into a closer alliance in the event that France rejected the peace terms they had recently offered. Each agreed to put 150,000 soldiers in the field against France and to guarantee the European peace (once obtained) against French aggression for twenty years.[1]

Following discussions in late February 1814, representatives of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain reconvened a meeting at Chaumont,

resulted in the Congress of Vienna.
Several powers, despite the peaceful intentions of the treaty, still feared a reassertion of French power. With this in mind, the territories strengthened themselves for protection. The House of Orange, which united Belgium and the Netherlands, was created to strengthen the two aforementioned countries in case of a French attack. Many German states had been consolidated by Napoleon, and they retained this status, while Prussia gained territory in western Germany, near the border with France. In Italy, several different political entities were recognized, and the independence of Switzerland was formally recognized.

1815 (resulted from losing at Waterloo)
Napoleon had escaped from his exile on Elba he entered Paris on 20 March, beginning the Hundred Days of his restored rule. Four days after France's defeat in the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon was persuaded to abdicate again, on 22 June. King Louis XVIII, who had fled the country when Napoleon arrived in Paris, took the throne for a second time on 8 July.

In addition to the definitive peace treaty between France and Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia, there were four additional conventions and the act confirming the neutrality of Switzerland signed on the same day. These were listed by the British Foreign office as

This treaty was much sterner than the one of the previous year. France was reduced to the boundary of 1790, was required to pay 700 million francs in reparations, and was made to pay for the maintenance of an Allied army of occupation in NE France, which was to remain for a maximum of five years. All the provisions of the treaty of 1814 not expressly revoked were to remain binding, as was the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna. On the same day Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia renewed the Quadruple Alliance.


1796年莱茵军事行动

法国对奥地利的军事战略是要求三管齐下入侵包围维也纳,在理想的情况下可占领这座城市,迫使神圣罗马皇帝就范,以接受法国大革命的领土完整。法国人派出了由儒尔当率领的 桑布尔与默兹集团军 ( 英语 : Army of Sambre and Meuse ) ,对抗北部的奥地利下莱茵集团军;由让·维克多·莫罗率领的 莱茵与摩泽尔集团军 ( 英语 : Army of the Rhine and Moselle ) ,迎战南部的奥地利上莱茵集团军;而第三支集团军,即 意大利集团军 ( 英语 : Army of Italy (France) ) ,则由拿破仑亲自指挥,穿过意大利北部逼近维也纳。意大利集团军的早期胜利最初迫使同盟指挥官卡尔大公将 达戈贝特·西格蒙德·冯·武姆泽 ( 英语 : Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser ) 指挥的25000名士兵转移到意大利北部。这削弱了沿莱茵河从巴塞尔到北海间340公里战线的盟军力量。后来,儒尔当的桑布尔与默兹集团军做了一次佯攻,诱使卡尔将部队进一步向北转移,让莫罗在6月24日的 凯尔战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Kehl (1796) ) 中渡过莱茵河,击败了大公的帝国分遣队。7月下旬,法国集团军深入德意志东部和南部,逼迫神圣罗马帝国的南部各邦签订了惩罚性的停战协议。到了8月,法军因战线扩张而过于分散,法国将领之间的竞争也使两军之间的合作变得复杂。由于两支法国集团军独立作战,卡尔得以让 马克西米利安·巴耶·冯·拉图尔 ( 德语 : Maximilian Baillet von Latour ) 率领一支较弱的集团军挡在最南端的莫罗前面,并籍此向身处北部的 威廉·冯·瓦滕斯莱本 ( 德语 : Wilhelm von Wartensleben ) 的部队转移了许多援军。

在8月24日的 安贝格战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Amberg ) 和9月3日的 维尔茨堡战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Würzburg ) 中,卡尔击败了儒尔当的北方集团军,迫使法军后撤,最终撤退至莱茵河西岸。随着儒尔当战败并退入法国,卡尔派 弗朗茨·冯·韦尔内克 ( 英语 : Franz von Werneck ) 去监视桑布尔与默兹集团军,以确保他们不会试图在莱茵河东岸夺回据点。在设法得到布鲁萨尔和凯尔的莱茵河渡口后,卡尔又迫使莫罗向南后撤。冬季,奥地利人在对 凯尔 ( 英语 : Siege of Kehl (1796–97年) ) 和 许宁根的围城战 ( 英语 : Siege of Hüningen (1796–97) ) 中瓦解了法国人的桥头堡,迫使莫罗的集团军撤回法国。尽管卡尔在莱茵兰取得了成功,但奥地利人仍在 意大利的战事 ( 英语 : Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars ) 中不敌拿破仑,最终导致《坎波福尔米奥条约》的签署。

从1793年到1795年,法国人的成就各不相同。到1794年,法兰西共和国的军队处于分裂状态。最激进的革命者肃清了军队中所有可能忠于旧制度的人。“ 大规模征兵 ( 英语 : Levée en masse ) ”造就了一支由数千名未受过训练的文盲组成的新军队,这些人由军官指挥,他们的从军资格可能是来自对革命的忠诚,而非各自的军事头脑。 [2] 传统的军事组织被新成立的 半旅 ( 英语 : Demi-brigade ) (由旧的军事编制和新的革命组织合并而成的编制)所破坏:每个半旅包括一支旧派王家部队和两支新的大规模征兵部队。在 1795年的莱茵军事行动 ( 英语 : Rhine campaign of 1795 ) 中,这支革命军的损失令法国公众和政府倍感失望。 [1]

政治 编辑

位于莱茵河东岸的德意志各邦是欧洲中部被称为神圣罗马帝国的庞大领土的一部分,奥地利大公国作为其中的一个主要政体,其大公通常担任神圣罗马皇帝。法国政府将神圣罗马帝国视为主要的大陆敌人。 [7] 在1796年后期,帝国的领土由 逾1000个政治实体 ( 英语 : List of states in the Holy Roman Empire ) 组成,当中包括位于德意志西南部的布赖斯高(哈布斯堡)、奥芬堡和罗特韦尔(自由市)、属于菲斯滕贝格和霍亨索伦王室家族的领地、巴登藩侯国、 符腾堡公国 ,以及数十个教会政体。这些领土中有许多都并非彼此相邻的:一条村庄可能主要属于一个政体,但其中的一座农场、一所房子,甚至是一到两块田地,则可能属于另一个政体。这些政体的规模和影响各不相同,从 小国政体 ( 英语 : Kleinstaaterei ) (面积不过数平方英里的小国,或包括几个不毗连的小地块)到巴伐利亚和普鲁士这样相当广阔、界限分明的领土。 [8]

地缘 编辑

在地势平坦的巴塞尔,莱茵河于 莱茵之膝 ( 英语 : Rhine knee ) 处向北转了一个大弯,从而进入当地人所称的“莱茵河沟”( Rheingraben )。这是一条宽约31公里的裂谷的一部分,它以东部(德国一侧)的黑林山脉和西部(法国一侧)的孚日山脉为边界。在东部泛洪平原的最边缘,支流将纵深的隘道阻隔在山脉的西部斜坡带上; [12] 这在1796年多雨的秋天变得尤为重要。再往北,河流变得更深更快,直到它扩大成一个三角洲,注入北海。 [13] 在1790年代,这一河段是荒凉且变化莫测的,军队需要冒着危险过河。河道蜿蜒穿过沼泽和草地,形成了树木和植被的岛屿,这些岛屿周期性会被洪水淹没。山洪暴发还可能会淹没农庄和田野。任何想要穿越这条河的军队都必须经由特定的地点:在1790年,系统性的高架桥和堤道使过河变得可靠,但它们只在凯尔、斯特拉斯堡、许宁根、巴塞尔和北部的曼海姆才有。有时,在凯尔和许宁根之间的新布里萨克也可以进行横渡,但由于桥头堡很小,因此并不可靠。 [14] [註 2] 只有在凯泽斯劳滕以北,这条河才有了明确的河岸,那里加固的桥梁可提供可靠的过境点。 [16]

1795年的莱茵军事行动结束时,双方宣布休战,但各自仍在继续谋划作战。 [17] 在1796年1月6日颁布的法令中,五名法国督政府首脑之一的拉扎尔·卡诺将德意志战场的优先级调至高于意大利战场。法兰西第一共和国的财政状况不佳,因此其军队将会入侵新的领土,然后在被征服的土地上生活。 [18] 得知法国人计划入侵德意志后,奥地利人于1796年5月20日宣布,休战将于5月31日结束,并为应对入侵作准备。 [19]

哈布斯堡及帝国编制 编辑

最初,哈布斯堡王朝暨帝国军队的人数约为125000人,共包括三个自治兵团,其中的90000人由神圣罗马皇帝弗朗茨二世的胞弟、时年25岁的卡尔大公指挥。 [20] 在莱茵军事行动展开之前,当拿破仑初战告捷的消息传来后, 达戈贝特·西格蒙德·冯·武姆泽 ( 英语 : Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser ) 又带领其中的25000人驰援意大利。在新的形势下,皇帝的军事顾问—— 帝国枢密院 ( 德语 : Reichshofrat ) 将从边境省份调来的奥地利军队以及神圣罗马帝国的分遣队( 行政圈部队 ( 德语 : Kreistruppen ) )的指挥权都交给了卡尔。奥地利人的策略是占领特里尔,并利用西岸的这一阵地对法军实施依次打击;即便做不到这一点,大公也得坚守其阵地。 [17]

由符腾堡公爵斐迪南·腓特烈·奧古斯特率领的20000人右翼(北翼)部队,身处莱茵河东岸的锡格河后方,负责监视杜塞尔多夫的法国桥头堡。他的一部分兵力还会在西岸和纳厄河后方巡逻。美因茨要塞和埃伦布赖特施泰因要塞的驻军总数超过10000人,其中埃伦布赖特施泰因要塞有2600人。卡尔将他的主力部队集中在卡尔斯鲁厄和达姆施塔特之间,由麾下一位更有经验的将军 拉图尔伯爵 ( 德语 : Maximilian Baillet von Latour ) 指挥,那里是莱茵河与美因河交汇的地方,遭受袭击的可能性很大;这些河段拥有良好的桥渡和相对明确的河岸,是进入德意志东部各邦并最终到达维也纳的门户。另有一支部队占领了西岸的凯泽斯劳滕。 威廉·冯·瓦滕斯莱本 ( 德语 : Wilhelm von Wartensleben ) 的自治兵团则覆盖了美因茨至吉森之间的防线。 [註 3] [22]

在 安东·什塔雷 ( 英语 : Anton Sztáray ) 、 米夏埃尔·冯·弗勒利希 ( 英语 : Michael von Fröhlich ) 和孔代亲王路易·约瑟夫的领导下,极左翼守卫着从曼海姆到瑞士间的莱茵河边境。这部分军队包括从帝国行政圈征召的士兵。卡尔不喜欢在任何重要的地点使用民兵,一旦他明白法国人打算从莱茵河中游渡河,大公便毫不犹豫地将民兵部署至凯尔。 [23] 1796年春,随着战争似乎即将再次爆发,包括 上施瓦本 ( 英语 : Upper Swabia ) 大部分(教会、世俗和王朝)政体在内的88个 施瓦本行政圈 ( 英语 : Swabian Circle ) 成员,筹集到一支约7000人的小部队。这些士兵大多是务农工人,偶尔也有熟练工和临时招募的散工,但都没有接受过军事方面的训练。其余的兵力包括驻扎在拉施塔特北部且经验丰富的哈布斯堡边防部队、一支法国保皇派骨干部队以及驻扎在弗赖堡的数百名雇佣兵。 [22] [24]

与法国人相比,在从瑞士延伸至北海的340公里莱茵河战线——也就是 贡特尔·罗滕贝格 ( 英语 : Gunther E. Rothenberg ) 所说的“细白线” [註 4] 上,卡尔的兵力只有对手的一半。帝国军队无法以足够的纵深覆盖从巴塞尔到法兰克福的领土,去抵抗对手的压力。 [20]

法国编制 编辑

莫罗的集团军驻扎在莱茵河以东的许宁根,其中心向北沿奎希河延伸至兰道附近,左翼则向西延伸至萨尔布吕肯。 [17] [註 5] 莱茵与摩泽尔集团军共有步兵71581人、骑兵6515人,不含炮兵和工兵。桑布尔与默兹集团军的80000兵力则占据了莱茵河西岸,其范围南至纳黑河,然后向西南方向直抵圣文德尔。在集团军的左(北)翼, 让-巴蒂斯特·克莱贝尔 ( 英语 : Jean-Baptiste Kléber ) 有22000名士兵驻扎在杜塞尔多夫莱茵河东岸的一座桥头堡,那里有一个由壕沟筑起的营地。克莱贝尔将从杜塞尔多夫向南推进,而儒尔当的主力将包围美因茨,然后越过莱茵河进入弗兰肯。他们希望这次推进能促使奥地利人从莱茵河西岸撤出全部兵力,以应对法国人的猛攻。一旦儒尔当在杜塞尔多夫附近的行动能引起北方奥地利人的注意,莫罗便可率领莱茵与摩泽尔集团军从新布里萨克、凯尔和许宁根越过莱茵河,入侵巴登藩侯国、围攻或占领曼海姆,进而征服施瓦本和巴伐利亚。莫罗的最终目标是维也纳;而儒尔当在仲夏的时候理论上应该已经占领了弗兰肯的大部分地区,他将转向南方,成为莫罗向哈布斯堡首都挺进的后防线。 [18] [25]

同时,拿破仑·波拿巴要入侵意大利,迫使撒丁尼亚王国中立,并从奥地利人手中夺取伦巴第。之后, 法国的意大利集团军 ( 英语 : Army of Italy (France) ) 奉命将经由蒂罗尔翻越阿尔卑斯山,与其他法国集团军会合,在德意志南部击溃奥地利军队。到1796年春,儒尔当和莫罗各有70000人,而拿破仑的集团军有63000人,包括预备役部队和卫戍部队。弗朗索瓦·克里斯多夫·凯勒曼也依仗20000人的 阿尔卑斯集团军 ( 英语 : Army of the Alps ) ,占领了当代瑞士的西侧、介乎于莫罗和拿破仑之间的区域;在法国南部还有一支规模较小的集团军,但在莱茵军事行动中没有发挥作用。 [18] [22]

跨越莱茵河 编辑

根据计划,克莱贝尔首先出击,从杜塞尔多夫向南进攻符腾堡公爵的下莱茵集团军一翼。 [17] 1796年6月1日,克莱贝尔的一个师团在弗朗索瓦·约瑟夫·勒费弗尔的指挥下,从锡格堡的 米夏埃尔·冯·金迈尔 ( 英语 : 弗朗索瓦·约瑟夫·勒费弗尔 ) 手中夺取了奥地利人的一座桥。与此同时,由 克劳德-西尔维斯特·科劳 ( 英语 : Claude-Sylvestre Colaud ) 率领的第二支法国师团也在威胁着奥地利人的左翼。 [26] 符腾堡向南撤退到 乌克拉特 ( 德语 : Uckerath ) ,但随后又继续退至阿尔滕基兴一个防御严密的阵地。6月4日,克莱贝尔在 阿尔滕基兴战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Altenkirchen ) 中击败符腾堡,俘虏了1500名奥地利士兵并缴获12门大炮和4面旗帜。卡尔遂将奥地利军队撤出莱茵河西岸,并将保卫美因茨的主要责任交给上莱茵集团军。 [27] 此次挫折之后,卡尔用瓦滕斯莱本取代了符腾堡,这让后者非常恼火:公爵回到维也纳,向帝国枢密院提出了他对卡尔决策的持续批评,并就如何更好地从首都管理战争提出了建议。 [28] 儒尔当的主力部队于6月10日在新维德跨越莱茵河,加入克莱贝尔,桑布尔与默兹集团军向兰河挺进。 [29]

卡尔留下12000名士兵守卫曼海姆,将军队重新部署在两军之间,并迅速向北移动以对抗儒尔当。1796年6月15日,大公在 韦茨拉尔战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Wetzlar (1796) ) 中击败了桑布尔与默兹集团军,儒尔当遂不失时机地回到新维德莱茵河西岸的安全地带。 [29] 之后,奥地利人在乌克拉特与克莱贝尔的师团发生冲突,法军伤亡3000人,而己方损失仅600人。取得胜利之后,卡尔把35000人留给瓦滕斯莱本,另外30000人留在美因茨和其他要塞,自己随即带着20000人的部队南下协助拉图尔。克莱贝尔则撤退至杜塞尔多夫的防线。 [30]

对盟军而言,这一行动并非完全成功。当卡尔在韦茨拉尔和乌克拉特造成伤害时,6月15日,路易·德赛的30000大军在 毛达赫 ( 德语 : Maudach ) 击溃了 弗朗茨·佩特拉施 ( 英语 : Franz Petrasch ) 麾下的11000名奥地利士兵。法军伤亡600人,而奥地利人的伤亡却是法国人的三倍之多。 [31] 莫罗在佯攻曼海姆附近的奥地利阵地之后,派遣集团军从施派尔向南往斯特拉斯堡强行军;6月23-24日夜间,德塞率领先头部队在斯特拉斯堡附近的凯尔越过莱茵河。 [29]

盟军在凯尔的阵地只有谨慎的保护。6月24日,德塞的先头部队以27000名步兵和3000名骑兵为主力,在桥上轻易击败了远逊于自己的施瓦本务农工人。在 第一次凯尔战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Kehl (1796) ) 中,10065名参与初始进攻的法军只仅录得150人伤亡。施瓦本人寡不敌众,无人增援。莱茵河的大多数帝国军队都留在曼海姆附近,卡尔在那里预见了主要攻击的发生。无论是孔代在弗赖堡的 部队 ( 英语 : Army of Condé ) 还是 菲斯滕贝格的卡尔·阿洛伊斯 ( 英语 : Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg ) 在拉施塔特的部队都无法及时到达凯尔支援他们。施瓦本人伤亡700,损失了14门炮和22辆弹药车。 [31] 莫罗于6月26-27日增援了他新夺得的桥头堡,这样他就有30000名士兵来对抗只有18000名驻扎在当地的盟军部队。莫罗将德拉伯德的师团留在西岸,以监视新布里萨克至许宁根间的莱茵河段,自己则向北推进去对抗拉图尔。在与主帅分离之后,由弗勒利希和孔代指挥的奥地利军队左翼向东南撤退。 [29] 6月28日,德塞在伦兴追上了由什塔雷率领的9000名奥地利和 帝国军 ( 英语 : Army of the Holy Roman Empire ) 部队。法军仅以200人的伤亡为代价,就造成了对手550人伤亡,同时俘获850人、7门炮和2辆弹药车。 [32]

此外,就在莫罗的先头部队越过凯尔的同一天, 皮埃尔·马利·巴泰勒米·费里诺 ( 英语 : Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino ) 也在巴塞尔附近的许宁根完成了一次全面渡河,率领第16和第50半旅,第68、第50和第68线列步兵团 [註 6] ,以及六个骑兵中队(包括第3、第7骠骑支队和第10龙骑支队),沿着德意志一侧的莱茵河岸向东挺进,没有遭到任何抵抗。 [34] 这使法国人取得了预期的夹击效果:桑布尔与默兹集团军从北面逼近,莱茵与摩泽尔集团军的大部从中部越过,而费里诺的部队则从南部越过。 [35]

在一天之内,莫罗共有四个师越过莱茵河,标志着法军的计划取得了基础性的成功,并以其敏锐的态度执行着他们的计划。从南部开始,费里诺对弗勒利希和孔代实施压迫,肃清了东北偏东往菲林根方向的广阔区域,而洛朗·古维翁-圣西尔则追击帝国军,把他们赶到了拉施塔特。拉图尔和什塔雷试图守住穆尔格河的防线。法国人雇佣了19000名步兵和1500名骑兵至 亚历山大·卡米尔·塔波尼 ( 英语 : Alexandre Camille Taponier ) 和 弗朗索瓦·安东尼·路易·布尔西耶 ( 英语 : François Antoine Louis Bourcier ) 麾下的师团。奥地利人在菲斯滕贝格和 约翰·梅扎罗什·冯·索博斯洛 ( 英语 : Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló ) 的指挥下,动员了6000名士兵参与行动。法军共俘获了200名奥地利人和3门野战炮。 [36] 1796年7月5日,德赛将他的两翼都调转过来,在 拉施塔特战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Rastatt (1796) ) 中击败拉图尔,将后者的帝国和哈布斯堡联军赶回了阿尔布河之后。哈布斯堡和帝国军队没有足够的兵力来抵挡莱茵与摩泽尔集团军,他们需要卡尔的增援,而卡尔此时正盘踞北方,把儒尔当困在莱茵河西岸。 [37]

早期莱茵军事行动,1796年春夏
日期地点 法军 盟军 胜方 行动
6月4日
阿尔滕基兴 ( 英语 : Battle of Altenkirchen )
11000人 6500人 法军 盟军部队撤退至兰河东南侧。法国人损失不大;奥地利人损失了2个营和10门炮。
6月9日
封锁 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine campaign of 1796#Blockades )
约5700人 10000人 盟军 美因茨和埃伦布赖特施泰因的防御工事分别在美因河与莱茵河、莱茵河与摩泽尔河的汇合处提供了一个重要的要塞。6月9日开始对埃伦布赖特施泰因实施封锁,6月14日开始对美因茨实施封锁。
6月15日
毛达赫 ( 英语 : Battle of Maudach )
27000名步兵
3000名骑兵
11000人 法军 凯尔以北、上莱茵河段系列行动的序幕。莫罗和儒尔当协同佯攻,使卡尔相信主要袭击将发生在莱茵河与摩泽尔河和美因茨河交汇处或更北的地方。盟军损失了10%的战力,分别为失踪、阵亡或负伤。
6月15日
韦茨拉尔及乌克拉特 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine campaign of 1796#Wetzlar and Uckerath )
11000人 36000人
非全数参战
盟军 法国人在早期的冲突之后撤退,并拆分部队。儒尔当向西移动以保卫莱茵河上新维德的桥头堡,克莱贝尔向更北的杜塞尔多夫壕沟营地移动。卡尔紧随其后,并从斯特拉斯堡和施派尔之间的部队中吸取了一些兵力。
6月23-24日
凯尔 ( 英语 : Battle of Kehl (1796) )
10000人 7000人 法军 在佯攻北部之后,莫罗的一万先遣兵力以27000名步兵和3000名骑兵为主力,向桥上的6500-7000名施瓦本哨兵发起进攻。 [31] 莱茵河的帝国军队大部分都驻扎在更北的曼海姆附近,那里更容易渡河,但因太远而无法支援凯尔的小分队。孔代的部队身处弗赖堡,也因支援所需的行军距离太长而无法放心。拉施塔特的菲斯滕贝格部队同样无法及时驰援凯尔。施瓦本人寡不敌众,无人增援。一天之内,莫罗有四个师团在凯尔过河。施瓦本人的特遣队被毫不客气地赶出凯尔——有传言称他们是在法军逼近时逃跑了,并于7月5日在拉施塔特进行重组。 [38] 尽管卡尔无法将大部分兵力从曼海姆或卡尔斯鲁厄撤走,法国军队也在河对岸集结,但施瓦本人还是设法守住了拉施塔特,直至援军到来。 [34] [35]
6月28日
伦兴 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine campaign of 1796#Renchen )
20000人 6000人 法军 莫罗的部队与正保卫穆尔格河防线、由拉图尔指挥的哈布斯堡奥地利军队发生冲突。德赛率领莫罗部队的一个侧翼袭击奥地利人,把他们赶回了阿尔布河之后。 [39]
7月21日
新维德 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine campaign of 1796#Neuwied )
兵力不详 8000人 法军 儒尔当最南端的侧翼遭遇了帝国和黑森部队
7月4日
拉施塔特战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Rastatt (1796) )
19000名步兵
1500名骑兵
6000人 法军 主要涉及奥地利侧翼的转向。
7月8日
吉森 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine campaign of 1796#Giessen )
20000人 4500人 法军 法国人出其不意地袭击了一支孱弱的奥地利守军,并占领了这座城市。
除非另有说明,所有的部队人数和行动目标均引用自 [40]

法国人的攻势 编辑

卡尔意识到需要增援,并担心其部队会受到莫罗师团在凯尔和许宁根出其不意的跨河所包围,于是带着更多的部队来到拉施塔特附近,准备于7月10日攻打莫罗。法国人率先于7月9日发动进攻,使他措手不及。尽管感到意外,卡尔还是在 埃特林根战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Ettlingen ) 中击退了德赛的右翼进攻,但圣西尔和塔波尼在城东的山丘上连连告捷,威胁到了他的侧翼。莫罗损失了36000名士兵中的2400人,而卡尔的32000名士兵中则有2600人 丧失战斗力 ( 英语 : hors de combat ) 。然而,由于担心补给线的安全,卡尔开始谨小慎微地向东撤退。 [37] [41]

法国人的成功仍在延续。由于卡尔不在北方,儒尔当得以跨过莱茵河,把瓦滕斯莱本赶回了兰河后方。7月10日,当卡尔在埃特林根忙得不可开交时,桑布尔与默兹集团军在 弗里德贝格战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Friedberg (Hessen) ) (又称林堡战役)中击败了对手,进一步向前推进。 [42] 在此次行动中,奥地利人伤亡1000人,法国人伤亡700人。 [41] 儒尔当于7月16日占领了美因河畔法兰克福。他留下 弗朗索瓦·塞韦林·马尔索 ( 英语 : François Séverin Marceau ) 率28000名士兵对美因茨和埃伦布赖特施泰因实施封锁,自己继续向美因河推进。依照卡诺的策略,法军指挥官继续向瓦滕斯莱本的北侧进攻,迫使奥国将军后撤。 [42] 儒尔当麾下共有46197人,而瓦滕斯莱本的部队则有36284人;瓦滕斯莱本认为攻击更强大的法军没有安全感,于是继续向东北撤退,从而远离了卡尔的侧翼。 [43] 在前进动力和捕获奥地利补给的鼓舞下,法国人于8月4日又占领了维尔茨堡。三天后,桑布尔和默兹集团军在克莱贝尔的临时指挥下,于8月7日在福希海姆赢下了与瓦滕斯莱本的另一场战斗。 [42]

与此同时,1796年7月21日,身处南部的莱茵与摩泽尔集团军在斯图加特附近的 坎施塔特 ( 德语 : Cannstadt ) 与卡尔的撤退部队持续发生冲突。 [41] 施瓦本人和巴伐利亚选侯开始与莫罗谈判以寻求救济;到7月中旬,莫罗的集团军已经控制了德意志西南部的大部分地区,并与西南部的大多数邦国签订了惩罚性的停战协议。帝国的行政圈部队在余下的军事行动中几乎再无参与,并于7月29日在里斯河畔比伯拉赫被他们的指挥官弗勒利希强制解除武装,然后解散,返回自己的家园。 [44] 卡尔和哈布斯堡部队于8月2日左右通过坡道旁盖斯林根撤退,并于8月10日到达讷德林根。当时,莫罗的45000名士兵以内勒斯海姆为中心展开了40公里长的阵线,但两翼都没有设防。与此同时,费里诺的右翼部队在梅明根以南的偏远处失去了联系。卡尔原计划越过多瑙河南岸,但莫罗离得很近,足以阻挠他的行动。大公决定转而发动进攻。 [45]

早期莱茵军事行动,1796年春夏
日期地点 法军 盟军 胜方 行动
7月9日
埃特林根 ( 英语 : Battle of Ettlingen )
36000人 32000人 法军 莫罗率领由步兵、骑兵和马车炮兵组成的师团与德赛的左翼并肩作战。 [46] 马尔施村庄曾两度被法国人占领,但每次都被奥地利人夺回。 [37] 拉图尔试图以骑兵强行绕过离开的法国人,但被预备役的骑兵所阻挡。 [47] 拉图尔发现自己的骑兵在厄蒂希海姆附近寡不敌众,便用大炮将法国骑兵围困。 [37] 在莱茵河平原的战斗意志持续至夜里10:00。 [47] 法国一翼的指挥官命令部队不要强攻,一旦遇到强烈抵抗时就撤退。每次进攻都推进到山脊上,然后又退回山谷。当第五次团攻失败时,守军终于作出反应,冲下斜坡切断了法军。法军遂以集结的掷弹兵连队进攻奥国的一个侧翼,其他预备役部队向另一个侧翼进发,并向中部发起反击。 [48] 攻击奥地利右翼的法军则隐藏在附近的黑伦阿尔布镇上。 [47] 当奥地利人撤退时,法国人跟着他们爬上山脊,进入敌人的阵地。尽管如此, 凯姆 ( 英语 : Konrad Valentin von Kaim ) (奥国指挥官)的士兵还是开火了, 勒古布 ( 英语 : Claude Lecourbe ) 的掷弹兵陷入混乱,以至于他们的首领差点被俘。 [48]
7月10日
弗里德贝格 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine Campaign of 1796#Friedberg )
30000人 6000人 法军 在得知莫罗成功进攻凯尔后,儒尔当越过了莱茵河,向瓦滕斯莱本的部队发起进攻,并将他逼至美因河以南。
7月21日
坎施塔特 ( 英语 : Early clashes in the Rhine Campaign of 1796#Cannstatt )
不详 8000人 法军 莫罗的部队袭击卡尔的后防线。
除非另有说明,所有的部队人数和行动目标均引用自 [40]

停滞 编辑

莫罗和儒尔当也面临着类似的困难。儒尔当继续专注于追击瓦滕斯莱本;莫罗则继续一心一意地追击卡尔,深入巴伐利亚。法国集团军越来越远离莱茵河,越来越远离彼此,这拉长了补给线,减少了互相掩护两翼的可能性。拿破仑后来在写到莫罗的举动时,称“他不知道在左边还有一支法国集团军”。 [42] 历史学家 希欧多尔·艾罗尔特·道奇 ( 英语 : Theodore Ayrault Dodge ) 断言,联合部队“本可以彻底压垮奥地利人”。 [45]

停滞:1796年盛夏
日期地点 法军 盟军 胜方 行动
8月11日
内勒斯海姆 ( 英语 : Battle of Neresheim )
47000人 43000人 法军 在诺伊马克特,卡尔掠过了儒尔当麾下、由让-巴蒂斯特·贝尔纳多特少将指挥的一个师。这一行动使大公正好身处在法军的右后方,并得以说服瓦滕斯莱本调转部队与卡尔会合。战役结束后,卡尔将其部队撤回到更往东处,使莫罗远离儒尔当的翼部,从而削弱了法军的战线。在引诱莫罗远离儒尔当、令他无法对桑布尔与默兹集团军提供任何支援后,卡尔率领27000人的部队向北行军,于8月24日与瓦滕斯莱本会合;他们的联合部队在安贝格击败了儒尔当,进一步分裂了法国的战线,使儒尔当向北,莫罗向南。由于其战线更加紧凑,卡尔在战略和战术上都处于优势地位。 [49]
8月17日
苏尔茨巴赫 ( 英语 : Battle of Sulzbach )
25000人 8000人 法军 在苏尔茨巴赫,即距纽伦堡以东45公里的一个小村庄内,克莱贝尔率领一部分桑布尔与默兹集团军对抗奥国陆军少帅 保罗·克雷 ( 英语 : Paul Kray ) 。奥军死伤900人,另有200人被俘。
8月22日
代宁 ( 英语 : Battle of Theiningen )
9000人 28000人 [50] 战术平局 贝尔纳多特率领桑布尔与默兹集团军的一个师,担负着保卫集团军右翼的任务。 雅克·菲利普·博诺 ( 英语 : Jacques Philippe Bonnaud ) 将军本来要带同另一个师加入贝尔纳多特,但由于沟通不畅和道路不通,此举未能落实,贝尔纳多特师团变得孤立。 [51] 卡尔大公得知法军被孤立,遂率28000名士兵向诺伊马克特进发,意欲摧毁法国人,并侵入儒尔当的撤退线。然而在代宁,法国人倚仗有利的地形进行抵抗,尽管兵力仅为对手的三分之一,他们还是击退了奥地利人的多次进攻,贝尔纳多特亲自率领的一次反攻因夜幕降临而结束了战斗,双方均未屈服。翌日,贝尔纳多特向东北方向撤退,奥军追击,但贝尔纳多特阻止了卡尔切断儒尔当与莱茵河联系的企图。卡尔还将其补给线向北转移,所以他的补给线是来自波希米亚而非南部。
8月24日
安贝格 ( 英语 : Battle of Amberg )
2500人 40000人 盟军 卡尔进攻法军右翼,瓦滕斯莱本则从正面进攻。法国的桑布尔与默兹集团军因寡不敌众而被击败,儒尔当向西北撤退。奥地利人派出的40000名士兵中只有400人伤亡。法军伤亡1200人,交战的34000人中有800人被俘。
8月24日
弗里德贝格 ( 英语 : Battle of Friedberg )
59000人 35500人 法军 就在安贝格战役的同一天,从多瑙河南岸向东推进的法国军队追上了一支孤立的奥地利步兵部队:施罗德第七步兵团和孔代的法国保皇派部队。在随后的冲突中,奥地利人和保皇党人四分五裂。尽管卡尔命令拉图向北撤退到因戈尔施塔特,拉图却向东撤退以保护奥地利边境。这使莫罗有机会将其集团军部署在两支奥地利部队(瓦滕斯莱本和卡尔)之间,但他没有抓住这个机会。 [52]
9月1日
盖森费尔德 ( 英语 : Battle of Geissenfeld )
不详 约6000人 法军 弗里德里希·奥古斯特·约瑟夫·冯·瑙恩多夫 ( 德语 : Friedrich August Joseph von Nauendorf ) 将军和拉图尔率领一部分莱茵集团军对抗法国的莱茵与摩泽尔集团军。拉图尔向东撤退;瑙恩多夫则留在阿本斯贝格掩护奥地利后方。这时,莫罗意识到他的兵力暴露得多么严重,于是开始向西朝乌尔姆撤退。
>除非另有说明,所有的部队人数和行动目标均引用自 [40]

哈布斯堡的反攻 编辑

8月11日爆发的 内勒斯海姆战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Neresheim ) 是一个转折点;这是在广阔的战线上发生的一系列冲突,在此期间,奥地利人击退了莫罗的右翼(南部),几乎占领了他的炮兵营地。第二天,当莫罗准备作战时,却发现奥地利人已经溜走,正在渡过多瑙河。两军都损失了大约3000人。 [53]

同样,儒尔当在北部也遭遇挫折,8月17日在苏尔茨巴赫的一场冲突中, 保罗·克雷 ( 英语 : Paul Kray ) 率领的奥地利人造成了法军1000人伤亡、700人被俘,己方则有900人伤亡、200人被俘。尽管损失惨重,法国人仍继续前进。 [39] 8月18日,瓦滕斯莱本的部队撤退到纳布河后方, [42] 当儒尔当逼近纳布河时,他派让-巴蒂斯特·贝尔纳多特的师团驻扎在诺伊马克特监视卡尔,希望这样可以防止奥地利人向他发动奇袭。 [54] 但他们不知道的是,卡尔从多瑙河以南得到了援军,使奥地利人的兵力达到了60000人。卡尔留下35000名士兵供拉图尔指挥,以牵制多瑙河沿岸的莱茵与摩泽尔集团军。 [53]

哈布斯堡联合阵线 编辑

1796年8月22日,卡尔和 弗里德里希·奥古斯特·约瑟夫·冯·瑙恩多夫 ( 德语 : Friedrich August Joseph von Nauendorf ) 在诺伊马克特遭遇了贝尔纳多特的师团。 [39] 寡不敌众的法国人遂通过纽伦堡附近阿尔特多夫被驱逐至西北部的佩格尼茨河附近。在留下 弗里德里希·冯·霍策 ( 德语 : Friedrich von Hotze ) 率领一个师去追击贝尔纳多特之后,卡尔继续向北进攻儒尔当的右翼。当卡尔和瓦滕斯莱本的部队向桑布尔与默兹集团军聚集时,这位法国统帅下令向安贝格撤退。8月20日,莫罗给儒尔当发去消息,郑重宣告要密切关注卡尔,但他没有这样做。 [55] 在8月24日的 安贝格战役 ( 英语 : Battle of Amberg ) 中,卡尔击败了法国人,并摧毁了他们的两个后卫营。 [54] 40000名奥地利士兵中有400人伤亡。而在法军的34000名士兵中则伤亡1200人、另有800人和2面旗帜被俘。 [49] 儒尔当首先撤退至苏尔茨巴赫,继而转移至到维森特河,贝尔纳多特于8月28日与他会合。与此同时,霍策重新占领了纽伦堡。儒尔当本以为莫罗会令卡尔在南方疲于奔命,此时却发现自己面对的是数量上占优的敌人。 [54]

儒尔当退回到施韦因富特时,他看到了收复失地的机会:向美因河上的一个重要据点维尔茨堡开战。 [56] 与此同时,在法国军队中不断恶化的妒贤嫉能和对立情绪随着夏季的到来而达到顶点。儒尔当与他的侧翼指挥官克莱贝尔发生口角,这位军官突然辞去了他的指挥官职务。克莱贝尔阵营的两位将军——贝尔纳多特和科劳,都找借口立即离开军队。面对这次哗变,儒尔当以 亨利·西蒙 ( 英语 : Henri Simon (1764–1826) ) 将军取代了贝尔纳多特,并将科劳的部队分散到其他师团中。 [57] 儒尔当带着重组后的部队,与由西蒙、让-艾蒂安·瓦希耶·尚皮奥内和 保罗·格勒尼耶 ( 英语 : Paul Grenier ) 率领的30000人步兵师,以及 雅克·菲利普·博诺 ( 英语 : Jacques Philippe Bonnaud ) 率领的预备役骑兵部队,共同向南推进。勒费弗尔师团的10000兵力则留在施韦因富特,以备必要时组织撤退。 [56]


US Forces Order of Battle

This is a "best available" listing of US forces deployed to the Central Command Area of Responsibility (AOR) for Southwest Asia and for US forces deployed to European Command's locations in Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria. It does not include forces deployed exclusively for operations in Central Asia though it may at times list units that are involved in both Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. This listing also does not account for US or Coalition forces involved in operations in the Horn of Africa.

The task of developing a comprehensive listing of US forces present in the area is particularly difficult as the number of units rotating in and out of Southwest Asia are substantial. The events of Sept. 11, 2001 and the Global War on Terrorism has made such an effort significantly more difficult as the military seeks to improve operational security (OPSEC) and to deceive potential enemies and the media as to the extent of American operations. The significant number of troops that have been mobilized or activated in the United States for unspecified duties, whether they be in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom or in support of homeland security also complicates matters as it is not entirely clear which units are going where. This is further compounded by increasing reliance on the part of the Department of Defense on the mobilization of small-sized units to fill its manpower needs. These can range from individual companies, batteries, to even smaller-sized groups of troops rather the mobilization of entire battalion-sized units.

This being the case, mistakes, misidentifications, or ignorance regarding specific units being in the region, or not being in the region will occur.

Troop levels

Initial war plans for Iraq had an initial American invasion force of about 130,000 soldiers and Marines, which would drop quickly to as few as 30,000 to 50,000 by the end of 2003.

As of October 2005 80,000 of the Guard and Reserve forces were deployed in 40 nations. The largest portion was in Iraq, where Guard units accounted for eight of 15 Army combat brigades.

As of 01 March 2006 there were 133,000 US troops in Iraq, down from about 160,000 in December 2005 during parliamentary elections. The Pentagon cut Army combat brigades to 15 from 17. The 25th Infantry Division from Hawaii, along with seven other major military units are scheduled to deploy as part of the Summer 2006 troop rotation. The Pentagon hoped to reduce the US presence in Iraq to less than 100,000 by the end of 2006.

By March 2006 some 7,000 Schofield Barracks soldiers were preparing for deployment in August 2006. The soldiers deployed in April 2006 to the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California. The 25th Infantry Division would command Multinational Division North-Central operations in northern Iraq, with four to five brigades, one of which will be the 3rd Brigade Combat Team from Hawaii. At that time, more than 1,000 Marines of the 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, and Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 463 were already on their way to Iraq.

On 15 March 2006 it was reported that a battalion of about 700 soldiers from the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division would deploy into Iraq from their base in Kuwait to provide extra security during the holiday of Ashura, which ended 20 March 20006. The unit is one of the three battalions that were originally were scheduled to deploy to Iraq but were held in Kuwait as a standby force. Nearly 4,100 soldiers in the 34th Brigade Combat Team left for Iraq in late March 2006. The soldiers were from Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska and New Jersey. The deployment included 2,600 from Minnesota's National Guard, the largest contingent from the state to see combat since World War II.

By June 2006 the US had 14 combat brigades in Iraq, and a total of 127,000 troops. According to a 25 June 2006 report in the New York Times, a draft plan calls for significant reductions in the American military presence in Iraq by the end of 2007. The initial drawdown would involve the First Brigade of the 10th Mountain Division and the Third Brigade of the 101st Airborne Division are scheduled to rotate out of Iraq in September 2006, and would not be replaced. By December 2006, the number of US combat brigades in Iraq could be as low as 10 to 12, seven to eight brigades by June 2007 and five or six brigades by December 2007. Combat brigades, which typically number about 3,500 troops, account for only a portion of 127,000 American troops in Iraq, and other support units would not draw down as quickly.

There were about 152,000 US troops in Iraq as of early October 2005. As of mid-November 2006, there were approximately 152,000 US troops deployed to Iraq.

On May 19, 2008, DoD announced additional major units scheduled to deploy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, involving one division headquarters and seven brigade combat teams consisting of approximately 25,000 personnel. The deployment window for these units would begin in the fall and continue until the end of the year.Specific units receiving deployment orders include:

  • 25th Infantry Division Headquarters, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
  • 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, Fort Wainwright, Alaska.
  • 2nd Brigade, 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colo.
  • 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
  • 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley, Kan.
  • 3rd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C.
  • 172nd Infantry Brigade, Schweinfurt, Germany
  • 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas

On May 19, 2008, DoD also announced the alert of additional major units scheduled to deploy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The announcement involved four brigades from the Army National Guard who would have a security force mission and be assigned tasks to assure freedom of movement and continuity of operations in the country. Those tasks would include base defense and route security in Iraq and Kuwait. Deployments will involve approximately 14,000 personnel who were to begin deploying in the spring of 2009. Specific decisions made by the secretary of defense include:

  • 72nd Brigade Combat Team, Texas National Guard
  • 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division, Pennsylvania National Guard
  • 256th Brigade Combat Team, Louisiana National Guard
  • 278th Brigade Combat Team, Tennessee National Guard

On October 19, 2007, DoD announced that the 4th Brigade, 4th Infantry Division would deploy in the summer of 2008 to support Operation Iraqi Freedom. Prior to its deployment, the brigade will be re-designated as 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division while the existing 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, already deployed in Iraq, would re-deploy and be re-designated to become part of 1st Armored Division after its return to home station.

On April 9, 2007, DoD announced the alert of four National Guard brigade combat teams as additional replacement units for deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. There are approximately 13,000 personnel in these four brigades:

On April 2, 2007, the Department of Defense announced, additional major units scheduled to deploy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom:

    Headquarters Headquarters Headquarters Additionally, the 25th Infantry Division headquarters would have its tour extended by

On January 11, 2007, the Department of Defense announced, as part of President Bush's new strategy for Iraq, the following force adjustments which would result building the capacity available to commanders to 20 brigade or regimental combat teams:

  • The 2nd BDE, 82nd Airborne Division, and assigned as the call forward force in Kuwait, will move into Iraq and assume a security mission there.
  • The 1st BDE, 34th Infantry Division, Minnesota ARNG, will be extended in its mission for up to 125 days and will redeploy not later than August 2007.
  • The 4th BDE, 1st Infantry Division, will deploy in February 2007 as previously announced.
  • Three other Army combat brigades will deploy as follows:
    • The 3rd BDE, 3rd Infantry Division, will deploy in March 2007.
    • The 4th Stryker BDE, 2nd Infantry Division, will deploy in April 2007.
    • The 2nd BDE, 3rd Infantry Division, will deploy in May 2007.

    OIF-6 Rotation

      November 17, 2006 announcement:
  • 3rd Infantry Division Headquarters, Fort Stewart, Ga.
  • 4th Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Fort Riley, Ks.
  • 4th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Lewis, Wa.
  • 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, Fort Benning, Ga.
  • 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C
  • 173rd Airborne Brigade, Vicenza, Italy
  • In addition, the Department of Defense also alerted approximately 27,000 active duty and 10,000 reserve component troops in combat support and combat service support units smaller than brigade-size elements for deployment beginning in 2007.

    OIF-5 Rotation

    The Department of Defense announced on three separate occasions that approximately 138,000 soldiers would rotate into Iraq during mid and late 2006. As part of the OIF-5 rotation, the Department of Defense announced (on the following dates) that the following major units would deploy to Iraq:

      July 27, 2006 announcement:
    • 1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas
    • 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas
    • Regimental Combat Team 2, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
    • Regimental Combat Team 6, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina
    • 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division from Fort Stewart, Georgia has been placed in a prepare-to-deploy status for possible deployment later this year.
    • The deployment of the 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team operating in Iraq was to be extended for up to 120 additional days. In August, 2006, the 172nd SBCT was moved into the Baghdad area.
      June 20, 2006 announcement:
    • III Corps Headquarters, Fort Hood, Texas
    • II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C.
    • 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters, Fort Hood, Texas
    • 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas
    • 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas
    • 4th Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, Fort Richardson, Alaska
    • 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colo.
      November 7, 2005 announcement:
    • Division Headquarters, 25th Infantry Division, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
    • 13th Corps Support Command, Fort Hood, Texas
    • 1st Brigade, 34th Infantry Division, Minnesota Army National Guard
    • 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Schweinfurt, Germany
    • 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, Fort Lewis, Wash
    • 3rd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg, N.C.
    • 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
    • 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y.
    • The 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, based at Fort Riley, Kan., previously notified to prepare to deploy in early December, has been advised it will not deploy prior to Dec. 31, 2005.

    On September 25, 2006, the Department of Defense announced that it had delayed the redeployment of the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, based in Friedberg, Germany, for approximately 46 days. The unit was scheduled to redeploy in mid-January 2007, and would as a result begin that redeployment in late February 2007. This decision was taken to allow the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division to complete its one year dwell time and then deploy in January 2007. Additionally, it was announced that the 4th Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division would deploy 30 days earlier than originally scheduled and begin its deployment in late October 2006.

    OIF-4 Rotation

    The Department of Defense announced on four separate occasions the units that would rotate into Iraq during mid and late 2005. As part of the OIF-4 rotation, the Department of Defense announced (on the following dates) that the following major units would deploy to Iraq:

      February 11, 2005 announcement:
    • Headquarters, V Corps, Heidelberg, Germany
      January 18, 2005 announcement:
    • 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division, Wiesbaden, Germany
    • 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division, Wiesbaden, Germany
      January 4, 2005 announcement:
    • 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 28th Infantry Division, Pennsylvania Army National Guard
      December 14, 2004 announcement:
    • 48th Infantry Brigade (Separate), Georgia Army National Guard
    • 172d Stryker Brigade Combat Team, Ft. Wainwright, Alaska
    • 1st Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Ft. Drum, N.Y.
    • 101st Airborne Division, Air Assault (division headquarters and 4 brigades), Ft. Campbell, Ky.
    • 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Ft. Riley, Kan.
    • 4th Infantry Division (division headquarters and 4 brigades), Ft. Hood, Texas

    CENTCOM AOR

    On August 3, 2006 Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld testified that 133,000 US personnel were deployed in Iraq. At the same hearing, the number of troops in the Central Command AOR was officially estimated at 200,000 by General John Abizaid. As of August 22, 2006, over 17,000 coalition personnel from 23 nations were deployed in Iraq. Inside the Horn of Africa there were around 1,200 that dedicate or focus themselves on the Horn of Africa. In Afghanistan there were around 22,000.

    The US Air Force's Expeditionary Air and Space Force (EAF) concept and organization sets a guideline for Air Force deployments to operational locations. The EAF is comprised of 10 Aerospace Expeditionary Forces (AEF) each with lead combat and support wings including on-call wings that could be deployed if required. While deployments for active duty units generally lasts roughly 90-days, Reserve and Guard units deploy typically for 30-60 days. In testimony before the House Armed Services committee on June 13, 2006, General D.W. Corley, USAF reported that "[i]n Iraq, the Air Force [had] flown over 237,000 sorties."

    The Marine presence in Iraq is centered around the I Marine Expeditionary Force and the 1st Marine Division. One Marine Expeditionary Unit, the 15th MEU is deployed to Kuwait. One Marine Expeditionary Unit is also in the region, though it is currently supporting operations in Afghanistan [and are thus not included in this tally]. On June 30, 2005, General Michael W. Hagee, Commandant, USMC, testified that about 23,000 Marines were deployed in Iraq and would remain there into 2006. General Hagee also testified on the same day that 27,000 Marines were deployed in the Central Command AOR.


    1796&ndash1801

    August 1796 Primary electoral assemblies in Saint-Domingue are formed to elect colonial representatives to the legislative body in France. The outcome, facilitated by Louverture, results in positions for Laveaux and Sonthonax as deputies to the French legislature. October 1796 Power struggles develop in the face of Louverture’s growing power. To solidify his position and strengthen his ties, Sonthonax appoints Louverture Commander-in-Chief of the army. Laveaux sails to France as deputy while Sonthonax reluctantly stays in Saint-Domingue to perform his duties as civil commissioner. He plans to depart the colony in eighteen months when his assignment ends.


    25 August 1797 Louverture forces Sonthonax to return to France prematurely in a political move calculated to strengthen his position and gain favor in France. Sonthonax, despite wanting to leave the colony in the first place, finds himself forced out. As a result, instead of a normal and peaceful departure, the event becomes a humiliating and “forcible expulsion.” The remaining civil commissioners in the colony defer to Louverture, reaffirming that he is the most powerful figure in Saint-Domingue. Louverture misjudges, however, and instead of gaining favor abroad his audacity threatens the French and he is quickly seen as a major threat. Fall 1797-
    Winter 1798 Louverture’s army conquers most of British-occupied Saint-Domingue in the West. In the South, Rigaud’s army conquers the British at Jérémie. March 1798 The British surrender their fight for Saint-Domingue and negotiate peace with Louverture. Louverture agrees to grant full amnesty to French citizens who didn’t fight with the British, all black troops enrolled in the British army, and to the émigrés who had abandoned the British prior to the opening of negotiations. April 1798 France sends another official agent to Saint-Domingue upon the return of Sonthonax. Commissioner Hédouville arrives in Le Cap. His mission is to promulgate laws of the French legislative body, to “entrench respect for French national authority,” to prevent blacks from abusing their freedom, and to strictly enforce French law against the immigrants who first came to the colony in 1771.

    In reaction to France’s mounting fear of Louverture and his black army, Hédouville tries to disempower Louverture by dividing him and Rigaud. Though he is unsuccessful, Hédouville manages to force Louverture’s resignation from the Directory, insulting him in France and arranging to replace him with three European generals. In addition, he fills the Saint-Domingue army with white soldiers, sending the black troops back to plantations. Slaves view Hédouville’s actions as an attempt to reinstate slavery and a new wave of insurrection breaks out. 13 June 1798 Louverture signs a secret alliance treaty with England and the United States.


    October 1798 British forces evacuate Saint-Domingue as part of an agreement not to interfere with trade with France’s colonies. The French economy, depressed during its wars against Spain and England, reopens to colonial imports. At the same time merchant bourgeoisie lobby to reinstate the slave trade. Napoleon Bonaparte faces increasing pressure in France to bring down Louverture and take back Saint-Domingue. 23 October 1798 Hédouville missteps and tries to have Moïse arrested. Moïse, “the idol of the black workers” and Louverture’s nephew, manages to escape, issuing a call to arms to black workers throughout the plain. Louverture orders Dessalines and his troops to march on Le Cap to arrest Hédouville. Meanwhile mulattoes from around the colony join Rigaud in the South. Louverture concurrently strengthens and reorganizes his army in the North. 1799 Bonaparte’s overthrows the Directory in France, destroying the democratic republic and its anti-slavery principles. He declares himself Consul-for-Life, restores the pre-Revolution status quo of white rule, and turns his attention to France’s colonies.

    July 1799 Civil war between Louverture and Rigaud breaks out: Rigaud takes over command of Léogâne and Jacmel while Louverture take over Petit-Goâve. This power struggle, fraught with issues of race and class, ultimately benefits the economic interests of the Americans and British, who seek to maximize their trade to the detriment of the French.

    “From the vantage point of international politics, Saint Domingue was being manipulated as a piece on a chessboard, and the outcome of its internal struggles would be a key to the particular political and economic advantages that each of the three contending foreign powers intended to reap.” April 1800 Louverture sends a military expedition into Spanish Santo Domingo to bring the territory under his rule. At the same time a mass uprising of armed black workers breaks out in the North in support of Louverture. Louverture’s negotiations with the Spanish ultimately fail but he successfully gains the masses’ popular support. Moïse marches in the South with 10,000 troops. May 1800 Bonaparte sends a new commission to Saint-Domingue to confirm Louverture’s power in the colony and instate France’s most recent constitution. The new constitution proclaims that French colonies are to be governed by a set of “special laws” that take into the account the particularities of each territory. It states that Saint-Domingue is not to be represented in the French legislative body and will not be governed by laws for French citizens. The constitution does not address the colony’s general emancipation, but it is carefully worded to assure blacks of its inviolability.

    Louverture, meanwhile, is focused on ending civil war in the South and disarming Rigaud and his army. 25 July 1800 Dessalines defeats Rigaud with the help of American vessels at the Jacmel port. Louverture exiles Rigaud to France and re-divides the areas of conflict. He grants general amnesty to every person who helped him fight Rigaud.


    30 August 1800 Louverture is proclaimed the colony’s Supreme Commander-in-Chief. He and his revolutionary army of ex-slaves are “the uncontested dominant forces in Saint-Domingue” and he begins to impose what is essentially a military dictatorship. He has an army of 20,000 men to enforce his position as “absolute master of the island-colony."

    Louverture institutes a new set of policies enforcing the traditional plantation system so that the colony’s shaken economy can produce exports for France. This is an extension and reinforcement of earlier work codes imposed by French civil commissioners such as Sonthonax, Polverel and Hédouville. The laborers see the policies as an effort to re-impose slavery. They further object to Louverture’s plan to import Africans to increase the Saint-Domingue’s labor force and buoy its economy. 28 January 1801 The governor of Spanish Santo Domingo cedes control of his territory to Louverture. To make his achievements permanent, Louverture forms a central assembly to write a new constitution for all of Hispaniola that abolishes slavery on the entire island. Louverture's achievements during his years in power include social reforms, structuring and organizing a new government, establishing courts of justice and building public schools. 8 July 1801 Louverture proclaims the new constitution in Saint-Domingue and is declared Governor General for life. The constitution, which is sent to France, sanctions the structures Louverture has already set in place, and emphasizes the bourgeois principles of the French Revolution.

    Slavery is abolished forever and the constitution eliminates social distinctions of race and color, stating “all individuals be admitted to all public functions depending on their merit and without regard to race or color.” All individuals born in the colony were to be “equal, free, and citizens of France.” Voodoo is outlawed, mandatory labor is codified and Catholicism is established as the colony’s official religion. Black slaves, chafing against Louverture’s mandatory labor requirements, reject the measures through various forms of resistance.

    Though the constitution essentially usurps the power of the French, Saint-Domingue still identifies as a French colony. The constitution attempts to establish Saint-Domingue as equal to France, asserting the colony’s autonomy while still trying to receive benefits from France. Though the constitution is not a formal declaration of independence, Bonaparte immediately recognizes it as a threat and rejects it. General Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc, Bonaparte’s brother-in-law, is sent to Saint-Domingue to re-impose slavery and the Code Noir.

    By now planters are increasingly unhappy with the state of affairs in Saint-Domingue and are relying on Bonaparte to unseat Louverture, restore slavery, and facilitate the rise of the colony once more. Bonaparte is sympathetic, declaring that “Toussaint was no more than a rebel slave who needed to be removed, whatever the cost.” 19 July 1801 In the United States, President Thomas Jefferson reassures the French that he opposes independence in Saint-Domingue and pledges to support Napoleon’s agenda. October 1801 A massive uprising against Louverture’s regime breaks out in the North and Moïse is rumored to be involved. In Limbé, west of Le Cap, 250 whites are killed and rebels occupy Gonaives with the goal of killing whites, uniting mulattoes and blacks and declaring Saint-Domingue independent. The rebels support popular land distribution and charge Louverture with exploiting the masses at France’s benefit. Moïse is known to oppose his uncle, and has refused to make his laborers work, saying “was not the executioner of his own color” and that “the blacks had not conquered their liberty to labor again under the rod and the whip on the properties of the white.”

    Louverture has Moïse arrested, tried without defense, and shot. He brutally suppresses the uprising and 1,000 rebels are killed. The ruling class, split on Louverture’s actions, becomes further divided. Louverture’s left-wing support dwindles, considerably weakening his position. He becomes completely isolated from whites, mulattoes, and blacks, his former base of support.

    This timeline is the result of a final project by Kona Shen at Brown University. The site is sponsored by Brown's Department of Africana Studies. Feedback is welcome please send any corrections, comments, or questions to Kona Shen. Last updated October 27, 2015


    August&ndashSeptember 1791

    21-28 Oct 1790 The Ogé Rebellion: Jacques Vincent Ogé, an affranchis representing the colony in France, leads a revolt against the white colonial authorities in Saint-Domingue. Despite colonists’ attempts to prevent him from leaving France, Ogé manages to escape to England, where he is secretly helped by abolitionists. From there he sails to the United States, where he buys weaponry before arriving in Saint-Domingue on October 21. Eluding police, Ogé manages to unite with friends and family and organize a “common front of gens de couleur against the forces of white supremacy.” He amasses 300 men, consisting primarily of mulattoes and some free blacks. The group, fully armed, marches to Grande-Rivière, just south of Le Cap, and joins with others with the intention of taking the city and disarming the white population. The colonists manage to disband Ogé’s army by outnumbering the rebels. Ogé escapes and goes into hiding in the eastern part of the island in Spanish Santo Domingo. 14 August 1791 The Haitian Revolution begins with the Bois Caïman ceremony. Ready to carry out their plans, the slaves meet in Morne-Rouge to make final preparations and to give instructions. The slaves decide that “Upon a given signal, the plantations would be systematically set aflame, and a generalized slave insurrection set afoot.” Rumors circulate that white masters and colonial authorities are on their way to France to fight the Crown’s recent decrees granting mulattoes and free blacks rights. Though false, these rumors “served as a rallying point around which to galvanize the aspirations of the slaves, to solidify and channel these into open rebellion.”

    The Bois Caïman ceremony and subsequent insurrections are the result of months of planning and strategizing. There are two hundred slave leaders involved from around the North. All hold privileged positions on their plantations, most of them commandeurs with influence and authority over other slaves.Through strategic maneuvering these leaders successfully unite a vast network of Africans, mulattoes, maroons, commandeurs, house slaves, field slaves, and free blacks.

    The Bois Caïman ceremony takes place in a thickly wooded area where the slaves solemnize their pact in a voodoo ritual. The ceremony is officiated by Boukman, a maroon leader and voodoo priest from Jamaica, and a voodoo high priestess. Various accounts from that night describe a tempestuous storm, animal sacrifices, and voodoo deities. However, over the centuries the ceremony has become legendary, and it is important to note it can be difficult to distill fact from myth. Some historians, for example, believe the ceremony took place on the 22nd of August, not the 14th. A Note on Voodoo “Voodoo, both a sacred dance and a religion, was expressly forbidden in the French colonies, and from the very beginning, the colonists tried in vain to crush it.” Voodoo prevailed despite the whites’ efforts, nurtured in secret by the colony’s first slaves. During European colonialism and the Haitian revolution Voodoo played a singular role for slaves:

    “Despite rigid prohibitions, voodoo was indeed one of the few areas of totally autonomous activity for the African slaves. As a religion and a vital spiritual force, it was a source of psychological liberation in that it enabled them to express and reaffirm that self-existence they objectively recognized through their own labor . . . Voodoo further enabled the slaves to break away psychologically form the very real and concrete chains of slavery and to see themselves as independent beings in short it gave them a sense of human dignity and enabled them to survive.”

    During the revolution Voodoo brought together disparate forces in the colony, uniting various rebel factions to fight side by side. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Voodoo was widely misunderstood in the rest of the world. Hollywood portrayed the religion as primitive and savage, ignoring its rich history and complexity. Many researchers have misunderstood its relationship with Catholicism, which has masked and at times fused with Voodoo as it has developed over the centuries.

    Voodoo today is still a significant part of most Haitians’ daily lives. A Haitian woman in the 20th century said that “The loa love us, protect us and watch over us. They show us what is happening to our relatives living far away, and they tell us what medicines will do us good when we are sick.” 16 August 1791 Slaves in the Limbé district stray from the leaders’ plan, apparently due to a misunderstanding, and are caught setting fire to an estate. During their interrogation they reveal the conspiracy and the names of the leaders.

    Interestingly, though, many of the planters who are warned of the rebellion stand by their slaves and refuse to believe the rumors. One plantation manager, for example, “offered his own head in exchange if the denunciations….proved true.” Other planters, warned of the coming violence, escaped with their lives but still couldn’t protect their property, often losing everything.

    The other slaves involved in the conspiracy prepare to move ahead with the rebellion as planned, vowing to “to burn le Cap, the plantations, and to massacre the whites all at the same time.” 22 August 1791 The slaves launch their insurrection in the North. That night Boukman and his forces march throughout the region, taking prisoners and killing whites. By midnight, plantations are in flames and the revolt has begun. Armed with torches, guns, sabers, and makeshift weapons the rebels continue their devastation as they go from plantation to plantation. By six the next morning, only a few slaves in the area have yet to join Boukman, and scores of plantations and their owners are destroyed.

    The group, numbering 1,000 to 2,000, next splits into smaller bands to attack designated plantations, demonstrating their highly organized strategy. As the revolt in the North grows “awesome in dimensions,” whites become anxious about defending Le Cap, where the colonial government is centralized. It is to Le Cap – the social and cultural hub of the colony – that whites flee their burning plantations and rebelling slaves. Later an interrogated slave would declare that “in every workshop in the city there were negroes concerned in the plot.” The whites and slaves both realize that controlling the city would be critical in determining the revolution’s outcome.

    Blanchelande writes that “Fears of a conspiracy [in Le Cap] were confirmed as we had successfully discovered and continue daily to discover plots that prove that the revolt is combined between the slaves of the city and those of the plains we have therefore established permanent surveillance to prevent the first sign of fire here in the city which would soon develop into a general conflagration.” 23 August 1791 The slaves march to the Limbé district, adding to their forces. The group moves from plantation to plantation, seizing control and establishing military camps. Along the way more slaves join the rebellion, and those who don’t are cut down mercilessly.

    By the end of the day, “the finest sugar plantations of Saint Domingue were literally devoured by flames.” A horrified colonist wrote that “one can count as many rebel camps as there were plantations.” 24 August 1791 The slaves continue west to Port-Margot in the early evening, hitting at least four plantations. 25 August 1791 The rebels march to Le Cap, after burning down the region’s largest plantations and killing scores of whites. Every entrance to the city is guarded, and the slaves march against the whites’ cannons and guns, meeting armed resistance for the first time. Though the whites manage to drive the slaves back, the rebels divide up and regroup, returning by two different routes to successfully seize the city.

    The slaves hold out for three weeks against the planters, who are badly armed, disorganized, injured, and desperately in need of help. The slaves’ strategy is clear: every time the planters circle or overcome them, the slaves retreat to the mountains to reorganize and prepare a new attack.

    At the same time, slaves in the northeast rise up, “torch in hand, with equal coordination and purpose,” and advanced “like wildfire.” The slaves burn down the plantations methodically until all the major parishes in the upper North Plain region are hit and communication between them is severed. 30-31 Aug 1791 The slave forces reach nearly 15,000. Slaves join because they “had deserted their plantations, by will or by force, or by the sheer thrust and compulsion of events purposefully set in motion by the activities of a revolutionary core.” They are transformed from fugitive slaves into “hardened, armed rebel, fighting for freedom, ”a mental and physical process “accelerated by collective rebellion in a context of revolutionary social and political upheaval.”

    A colonist writes that “We had learned . . . that a large attack was afoot, but how could we ever have known that there reigned among these men, so numerous and formerly so passive, such a concerted accord that everything was carried out exactly as was declared? . . . The revolt had been too sudden, too vast and too well-planned for it to seem possible to stop it or even to moderate its ravages.”

    The planters are able to protect Le Cap but cannot save their plantations. They send frantic requests for military aid to Santo Domingo, Cuba, Jamaica, and the United States to no avail. Within 8 days the rebels devastate 184 sugar plantations in the north, losing planters millions of French livres. By September all the plantations within fifty miles of Le Cap are destroyed. 8 September 1791 The revolution spreads, becoming more militant and organized. On the plantations it takes less incite riots. Plantation crops are ruined as entire fields of slaves desert or simply stop working. In the “magnificent” Plaine-des-Cayes, comprising of almost 100 sugar plantations, every single plantation is destroyed. Many of the planters, “financially and morally ruined,” are desperate to save their fortunes while others consider themselves fortunate “just to get out of this wretched colony with their lives and a shirt on their backs.”

    The white troops are completely unprepared for the rebel’s guerrilla tactics, which include surprise attacks, thefts of supplies and livestock, ambushes, and poisoned arrows. The slaves, more resilient than the whites, are merciless, taking no prisoners of war. Over half of the 6,000 troops from France have at this point already “perished from the ravages of a tropical climate and endemic sicknesses reaching epidemic proportions.”

    An army volunteer writes: “This is the graveyard of the French here one dies off like flies.” Mid-Sept 1791 Slaves continue to make demands, but with the entire colonial system at stake, the planters can’t concede.

    One colonist writes presciently of the colonists’ dilemma in negotiating with the slaves: “For, if we reward with freedom those who have burned our plantations and massacred our people, the slaves who have hitherto remained loyal will do likewise in order to receive the same benefit. Then nothing more can be said: the whites must perish.”

    Another states “There can be no agriculture in Saint Domingue without slavery we did not go to fetch half a million savage slaves off the coast of Africa to bring them to the colony as French citizens.” 21 Sept 1791 The Colonial Assembly at Saint Marc recognizes the May 15 decree and grants citizenship to mulattoes and free blacks. White planters object violently and tensions in the colony rise.

    This timeline is the result of a final project by Kona Shen at Brown University. The site is sponsored by Brown's Department of Africana Studies. Feedback is welcome please send any corrections, comments, or questions to Kona Shen. Last updated October 27, 2015


    Contents

    The Pre-Columbian Era is the time before Christopher Columbus went to the Americas in 1492. At that time, Native Americans lived on the land that is now controlled by the United States. They had various cultures: Native Americans in the Eastern Woodlands hunted game and deer Native Americans in the Northwest fished Native Americans in the Southwest grew corn and built houses called pueblos and Native Americans in the Great Plains hunted Bison. [1] [2] Around the year 1000, the Vikings visited Newfoundland. However, they did not settle there. [3]

    The English tried to settle at Roanoke Island in 1585. [4] The settlement did not last, and no one knows what happened to the people. In 1607, the first lasting English settlement was made at Jamestown, Virginia, by John Smith, John Rolfe and other Englishmen interested in gold and adventure. [5] In its early years, many people in Virginia died of disease and starvation. The colony in Virginia lasted because it made money by planting tobacco. [6]

    In 1621, a group of Englishmen called the Pilgrims settled at Plymouth, Massachusetts. [7] A bigger colony was built at Massachusetts Bay by the Puritans in 1630. [8] The Pilgrims and the Puritans were interested in making a better society, not looking for gold. They called this ideal society a "city on a hill". [9] A man named Roger Williams left Massachusetts after disagreeing with the Puritans, and started the colony of Rhode Island in 1636. [10]

    Great Britain was not the only country to settle what would become the United States. In the 1500s, Spain built a fort at Saint Augustine, Florida. [11] France settled Louisiana, and the area around the Great Lakes. The Dutch settled New York, which they called New Netherland. Other areas were settled by Scotch-Irish, Germans, and Swedes. [12] [13] However, in time Britain controlled all of the colonies, and most American colonists adopted the British way of life. The growth of the colonies was not good for Native Americans. [14] Many of them died of smallpox, a disease brought to America by the Europeans. The ones who lived lost their lands to the colonists. [14]

    In the early 1700s, there was a religious movement in the colonies called the Great Awakening. [15] Preachers such as Jonathan Edwards preached sermons. [15] One of them was called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God". The Great Awakening may have led to the thinking used in the American Revolution. [16]

    By 1733, there were thirteen colonies. New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, and Charleston were the largest cities and main ports at that time. [17]

    From 1756 to 1763, England and France fought a war over their land in America called the Seven Years' War or the French and Indian War, which the British won. [18] After the war, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 said that the colonists could not live west of the Appalachian Mountains. Many colonists who wanted to move to the frontier did not like the Proclamation. [19]

    After the French and Indian War, the colonists began to think that they were not getting their "rights as freeborn Englishman". [20] This meant they wanted to be treated fairly by the English government. This was mainly caused by new taxes the British made the colonies pay to pay for the war. [21] Americans called this "No taxation without representation", meaning that the colonists should not have to pay taxes unless they had votes in the British Parliament. [21] Each tax was disliked, and replaced by another which led to more unity between the colonies. In 1770, colonists in Boston known as the Sons of Liberty got in a fight with British soldiers. This became known as the Boston Massacre. [22] After the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty dumped hundreds of boxes of tea in the sea. This was known as the Boston Tea Party (1773). [23] [24] This led to the British Army taking over Boston. [25] After that, leaders of the 13 colonies formed a group called the Continental Congress. [26] Many people were members of the Continental Congress, but some of the more important ones were Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Roger Sherman and John Jay. [27]

    In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet called Common Sense. It argued that the colonies should be free of English rule. [28] This was based on the English ideas of natural rights and social contract put forth by John Locke and others. [29] On July 4, 1776, people from the 13 colonies agreed to the United States Declaration of Independence. This said that they were free and independent states, and were not part of England any more. [30] The colonists were already fighting Britain in the Revolutionary War at this time. The Revolutionary War started in 1775 at Lexington and Concord. [31] Though American soldiers under George Washington lost many battles to the British, they won a major victory at Saratoga in 1777. [32] This led to France and Spain joining the war on the side of the Americans. In 1781, an American victory at Yorktown helped by the French led Britain to decide to stop fighting and give up the colonies. [33] America had won the war and its independence.

    In 1781, the colonies formed a confederation of states under the Articles of Confederation, but it lasted only six years. It gave almost all the power to the states and very little to the central government. [34] The confederation had no president. It could not remove Native Americans or the British from the frontier, nor could it stop mob uprisings such as Shays' Rebellion. [35] After Shays' Rebellion, many people thought the Articles of Confederation were not working. [36]

    In 1787, a constitution was written. Many of the people who helped write the Constitution, such as Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and Gouverneur Morris, were among the major thinkers in America at the time. [13] Some of these men would later hold important offices in the new government. The constitution created a stronger national government that had three branches: executive (the President and his staff), legislative (the House of Representatives and the Senate), and judicial (the federal courts). [37]

    Some states agreed to the Constitution very quickly. In other states, many people did not like the Constitution because it gave more power to the central government and had no bill of rights. [38] [39] To try and get the Constitution passed, Madison, Hamilton and Jay wrote a series of newspaper articles called the Federalist Papers. [38] [39] Very soon after, the Bill of Rights was added. This was a set of 10 amendments (changes), that limited the government's power and guaranteed rights to the citizens. [40] Like the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution is a social contract between the people and the government. [41] The main idea of the Constitution is that the government is a republic (a representative democracy) elected by the people, who all have the same rights. However, this was not true at first, when only white males who owned property could vote. [42] Because of state laws as well as the 14th, 15th, 19th, 24th and 26th Amendments, almost all American citizens who are at least 18 years old can vote today. [37]

    In 1789, Washington was elected the first President. He defined how a person should act as President and retired after two terms. [43] During Washington's term, there was a Whiskey Rebellion, where country farmers tried to stop the government from collecting taxes on whiskey. [44] In 1795, Congress passed the Jay Treaty, which allowed for increased trade with Britain in exchange for the British giving up their forts on the Great Lakes. [45] However, Great Britain was still doing things that hurt the U.S., such as impressment (making American sailors join the British Royal Navy). [46]

    John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1796 to become the second President of the United States. This was the first American election that was between two political parties. [47] As president, Adams made the army and navy larger. [48] He also got the Alien and Sedition Acts passed, which were much disliked. [49]

    In the election of 1800, Jefferson defeated Adams. One of the most important things he did as President was to make the Louisiana Purchase from France, which made the United States twice as big. [50] Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to map the Louisiana Purchase. [13] Jefferson also tried to stop trade with England and France so that the United States would not become involved in a war the two countries were fighting. [51] Fighting broke out between the United States and England in 1812 when James Madison was President. This was called the War of 1812. [52]

    One of the problems of this period was slavery. By 1861, over three million African-Americans were enslaved in the South. [53] This means that they worked for other people, but had no freedom and received no money for their work. Most worked picking cotton on large plantations. Cotton became the main crop in the South after Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. [54] There were a few slave rebellions against slavery, including one led by Nat Turner. All of these rebellions failed. [55] The South wanted to keep slavery, but by the time of the Civil War, many people in the North wanted to end it. [56] Another argument between the North and South was about the role of government. The South wanted stronger state governments, but the North wanted a stronger central government. [56]

    After the War of 1812 the Federalist Party faded away, leaving an "Era of Good Feelings" in which only one party was important, under Presidents James Madison and James Monroe. [57] Under Monroe, the United States' policy in North America was the Monroe Doctrine, which suggested that Europe should stop trying to control the United States and other independent countries in the Americas. [58] Around this time, Congress called for something called the "American System". [59] The American System meant spending money on banking, transportation and communication. Due to the American System, bigger cities and more factories were built. [60] One of the big transportation projects of this time was the Erie Canal, a canal in the state of New York. [61] By the 1840s, railroads were built as well as canals. By 1860, thousands of miles of railroads and telegraph lines had been built in the United States, mostly in the Northeast and Midwest. [62]

    In the early 19th century, the industrial revolution came to America. Many factories were built in Northern cities such as Lowell, Massachusetts. [13] Most of them made clothes. Many factory workers were women, and some were children or people from Ireland or Germany. [63] [64] Despite this industrialization, America was still a nation of farmers. [65]

    In the early and mid-1800s, there was a religious movement called the Second Great Awakening. Thousands of people gathered at large religious meetings called revivals. [66] They thought they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion. [67] New religious movements such as the Holiness Movement and the Mormons started, and groups like the Methodist Church grew. [68] The Second Great Awakening led to two movements in reform, that is, changing laws and behaviors to make society better. [69] One of these was the Temperance Movement, which believed that drinking alcohol was evil. The other was abolitionism, which tried to end slavery. People such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Lloyd Garrison wrote books and newspapers saying that slavery should stop. [13] They also formed political movements, which included the Liberty Party, the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party. [70] Some abolitionists, such as Frederick Douglass, were former slaves. By 1820, slavery was very rare in the North, but continued in the South. [13]

    In the 19th century, there was something called the “cult of domesticity” for many American women. This meant that most married women were expected to stay in the home and raise children. [71] As in other countries, American wives were very much under the control of their husband, and had almost no rights. Women who were not married had only a few jobs open to them, such as working in clothing factories and serving as maids. [72] By the 19th century, women such as Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton thought that women should have more rights. In 1848, many of these women met and agreed to fight for more rights for women, including voting. [73] Many of the women involved in the movement for women’s rights were also involved in the movement to end slavery. [13]

    In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected President. He was the first president elected from the Democratic Party. He changed the government in many ways. Since many of his supporters were poor people who had not voted before, he rewarded them with government jobs, which is called "spoils" or "patronage". [13] Because of Jackson, a new party was formed to run against him called the Whigs. This was called the "Second Party System". [74] Jackson was very much against the National Bank. He saw it as a symbol of Whigs and of powerful American businessmen. [13] [75] Jackson also called for a high import tax that the South did not like. They called it the "Tariff of Abominations". [56] Jackson’s Vice-President, John C. Calhoun, was from the South. He wrote that the South should stop the tariff and perhaps leave the Union (secession). These words would be used again during the Civil War. [56]

    People started to move west of the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains at this time. The first people who moved west were people who caught and sold animal skins such as John Colter and Jim Bridger. [76] [77] By the 1840s, many people were moving to Oregon by wagon, and even more people went west after the California Gold Rush of 1849. [78] [79] Many new states were added to the first thirteen, mostly in the Midwest and South before the Civil War and in the West after the Civil War. During this period, Native Americans lost much of their land. They had lost military battles to the Americans at Tippecanoe and in the Seminole War. [80] In the 1830s, Indians were being pushed out of the Midwest and South by events such as the Trail of Tears and the Black Hawk War. [81] By the 1840s, most Native Americans had been moved west of the Mississippi River.

    The Mexican–American War Edit

    In 1845, Texas, which was a nation after it left Mexico, joined the United States. [82] Mexico did not like this, and the Americans wanted the land Mexico had on the West Coast (“Manifest Destiny”). [83] This led to the U.S. and Mexico fighting a war called the Mexican-American War. During the war, the U.S captured the cities of San Francisco, Los Angeles, Monterrey, Veracruz and Mexico City. [84] As a result of the war, the U.S. gained land in California and much of the American Southwest. Many people in the North did not like this war, because they thought it was just good for Southern slave states. [85]

    In the 1840s and 1850s, people in the Northern states and people in the Southern states did not agree whether slavery was right or wrong in the territories—parts of the United States that were not yet states. [86] People in the government tried to make deals to stop a war. Some deals were the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, but they did not really work to keep the Union together. [87] People in the South were angry at books like Uncle Tom’s Cabin that said that slavery was wrong. People in the North did not like a Supreme Court decision called Dred Scott that kept Scott a slave. [88] People from the South and people from the North started killing each other in Kansas over slavery. This was called "Bleeding Kansas". [13] One of the people from Bleeding Kansas, John Brown, took over a town in Virginia in 1859 to make a point about slavery being wrong and to try to get slaves to fight their owners. [89]

    In the election of 1860, the Democratic Party split and the Republican candidate for President, Abraham Lincoln, was elected. After this, many Southern states left the Union. Eventually, eleven states left. They tried to start a new country called the Confederate States of America, or the "Confederacy". [90] A war started between the Union (North) and the Confederacy (South). Not having factories made it harder for Southern soldiers to get guns or uniforms. [91] The South could not get supplies because Northern ships blockaded the Southern coast. [92]

    Early in the war, Confederate generals such as Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson won battles over Union generals such as George B. McClellan and Ambrose Burnside. [93] In 1862 and 1863, the Union Army tried to take the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia several times, but failed each time. [94] Lee's army invaded the North twice, but was turned back at Antietam and Gettysburg. [92] In the middle of war, Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves in the Confederacy, and started letting black men fight in the Union Army. [95] The war started going the Union’s way after the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863. Gettysburg stopped Lee from invading the North, and Vicksburg gave the Union control over the Mississippi River. [92] In 1864, a Union Army under William T. Sherman marched through Georgia and destroyed much of it. [96] By 1865, Union General Ulysses S. Grant had taken Richmond and forced Lee to give up the fight at Appomattox. [97]

    In April 1865, Lincoln was shot and killed while watching a play. The new president, Andrew Johnson, had to go through the process of reconstruction, which was putting the United States back together after the Civil War. During this time, the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution were passed, freeing slaves, making them citizens and allowing them to vote. [98] Congress was run by "Radical Republicans", who wanted to punish the South after the Civil War. [99] They did not like Johnson, and almost removed him from office. [99] They also sent many soldiers to the South, installed unpopular "scalawag" governments, and made the South pass the 14th and 15th Amendments. [100] The South did not like this, so they made "Jim Crow" laws that placed blacks in lower roles. [101] White Southerners started a group called the Ku Klux Klan that attacked blacks and stopped them from voting. [102]

    During this time, many people moved to the United States from other countries, such as Ireland, Italy, Germany, Eastern Europe, and China. [103] Many of them worked in large factories and lived in big cities, such as New York City, Chicago, and Boston, often in small, poor, close-together apartments called "tenements" or "slums". [104] They often were used by "political machines", who gave them jobs and money in exchange for votes. [104]

    Major politicians were chosen by political machines and were corrupt. [105] The government could do little and leaders of big businesses often had more power than the government. [105] At this time, there were several very big businesses called trusts. People who ran trusts made millions of dollars while paying their workers low wages. Some of these people were John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan. [106]

    After the Civil War, people continued to move west where new states were formed. People now could get free land in the West due to an 1862 law called the Homestead Act. [107] Most of the land in the West was owned by the government, railroads, or large farmers. [13] The Transcontinental Railroad, finished in 1869, helped get people and goods from the west to the rest of the country. Chicago became the center of trade between West and East because many rail lines met there. [108] There were problems between the white settlers and the native Indians as more people began to move west. Because of this, many more Indians were killed at battles such as Wounded Knee. [109] Almost all the Indians' land was taken away by laws like the Dawes Act. [110]

    Many Americans thought the railroads charged farmers so much money that it made them poor. [111] Workers led several strikes against the railroad that were put down by the army. Also, farmers started groups to fight the railroad, such as the Grange. [112] These groups became the Populist Movement, which almost won the presidency under William Jennings Bryan. The Populists wanted reforms such as an income tax and direct election of Senators. [113] The Populist Party died out after 1896. Many of the things the Populists wanted would happen during the Progressive Era. [114]

    In the United States, progressivism is the belief that the government should have a larger role in the economy to provide good living standards for people, especially workers. [115] Imperialism was the belief that the U.S. should build a stronger navy and conquer land.

    In the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries, the U.S. started being more active in foreign affairs. In 1898, the United States fought a war with Spain called the Spanish–American War. The United States won, and gained Puerto Rico, Guam, Guantanamo and the Philippines. [116] Combined with the purchase of Alaska and the taking-over of Hawaii, the United States had gained all the territory it has today, plus some it would later lose after World War II. [117] Around this time, the U.S. and European nations opened up trade with China. This was because they had beaten China in the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion. The U.S. and Europe were able to trade with China through the Open Door Policy. [118]

    In 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became President. He had been a soldier in the Spanish–American War. He called for a foreign policy known as the "Big Stick". [119] This meant having a large navy and exercising control over Latin America. [120] [121] Between 1901 and 1930, the United States sent soldiers into Latin America several times. [121] When Roosevelt was president, work was begun on the Panama Canal, a link between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that made travel around the world much faster. [122]

    During this time, people started to notice the poor condition of American cities. A group of people called the “muckrakers” wrote books and newspaper articles about subjects like the power of big business, unclean practices in factories, and the condition of poor people. [13] Roosevelt and Congress answered their concerns with laws such as the Pure Food and Drug Act. The Act controlled the way food was made to make sure it was safe. [123] Another response to the muckrakers was something called "trust-busting", where big businesses were broken up into smaller ones. [124] The biggest business broken up this way was the Standard Oil Company in 1911. [125]

    In 1912, Woodrow Wilson became President. He was a Progressive, but not quite the same as Roosevelt. [126] [127] He fought the "triple wall of privilege", which was big business, taxes, and fees on goods coming into the United States. [13] During this time, the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution were passed. They allowed for a federal income tax and direct election of U.S. Senators. [128]

    The United States did not want to enter World War I [129] but wanted to sell weapons to both sides. In 1915 a German submarine sank a ship carrying Americans called the Lusitania. [129] This angered Americans, and Germany stopped attacking passenger ships. In January 1917 Germany started attacking them again, and sent the Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico about invading the U.S. [130] The United States joined the war against Germany, and it ended a year later. Wilson worked to create an international organization called the League of Nations. The main goal of the League was preventing war. [131] However, the United States did not join because isolationists rejected the peace treaty. [132] At the end of World War I, a flu pandemic killed millions of people in the U.S. and Europe. [133] After the war, the United States was one of the richest and most powerful nations in the world. [134]

    The "Roaring Twenties" Edit

    The 1920s were an era of growth and increased wealth for the United States. Many Americans began buying consumer products, such as Model T Fords and appliances. [136] Advertising became very important to American life. [136] During this time, many black people moved out of the South and into large cities such as New York City, Chicago, St. Louis and Los Angeles. [137] They brought with them jazz music, which is why the 1920s are called the "Jazz Age". [136] The 1920s were also the Prohibition Era after the Eighteenth Amendment passed. [138] During the 1920s, drinking alcohol was illegal, but many Americans drank it anyway. [136] This led to much rum-running and violent crime. [136]

    Racism was strong in the 1920s. The Ku Klux Klan was powerful once again, and attacked black people, Catholics, Jews and immigrants. [139] People blamed the war and problems in business on immigrants and labor leaders, whom they said were Bolsheviks (Russian communists). [13] [140] Many people also thought that the United States had lost touch with religion. They handled that by changing religion, and some of them by attacking science. [136]

    After World War I, the United States had an isolationist foreign policy. That meant it did not want to enter into another global war. It passed laws and treaties that supposedly would end war forever, and refused to sell weapons to its former allies. [141]

    In 1921, Warren G. Harding became President. He believed that the best way to make the economy good was for the government to be friendly to big business by cutting taxes and regulating less. [142] While the economy was doing very well under these policies, America had the largest difference between how much money the rich had and how much money the poor had. [143] Harding's presidency had several problems. The biggest one was Teapot Dome over oil drilling in the Navy Oil Reserve. [144] Harding died in 1923, and Calvin Coolidge became President. Coolidge believed that the government should keep out of business, just like Harding, and continued many of Harding's policies. [135] Coolidge chose not to seek the presidency in 1928 and Herbert Hoover became president. [145]

    The Great Depression Edit

    In 1929, a Great Depression hit the United States. The stock market crashed (lost much of its value). Many banks ran out of money and closed. [146] By 1932, over a quarter of the nation had no jobs, and much of the nation was poor or unemployed. [147] Many people were driven off farms, not only because of the Depression, but also because of a storm known as the "Dust Bowl" and because farmers had not been doing well during the 1920s. [148]

    President Hoover tried to do something about the Depression, but it did not work. [149] In 1932, he was defeated and Franklin D. Roosevelt became President. He created the New Deal. It was a series of government programs which would give relief (to the people who were hurt by the bad economy), recovery (to make the economy better), and reform (to make sure a depression never happens again). [150]

    The New Deal had many programs such as Social Security, the National Recovery Administration (regulated wages), Works Progress Administration (built thousands of roads, schools, government buildings and works of art), the Civilian Conservation Corps (gave young people jobs to help the environment), and Tennessee Valley Authority (built dams and electric lines in the South). [148] These programs put millions of Americans to work, though often at low pay. [151] [152] Many of these programs were started early in Roosevelt's term in a time called the "Hundred Days" or in 1935 in a time called the "Second New Deal". [153] Programs like Social Security grew out of populist movements by people such as Huey Long that were called "Share Our Wealth" and "Ham and Eggs". [153] The New Deal also led to the rise of worker's unions such as the Congress of Industrial Organizations. [13]

    The New Deal is often called the period that "saved capitalism", and stopped America from becoming a Communist or Fascist state. [148] Although the New Deal improved the economy, it did not end the Great Depression. The Great Depression was ended by World War II. [154]

    As World War II was beginning, the United States said they would not get involved in it. Most Americans thought the United States should remain neutral, and some people thought the United States should enter the war on the side of the Germans. [13] [141] Eventually, the U.S. did try to help the Allied Powers (Soviet Union, Britain, and France) with the Lend Lease Act. It gave the Allies a lot of money and guns in trade for use of air bases throughout the world. [155]

    On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, a U.S.Naval base in Hawaii. [156] The U.S. was no longer neutral, and it declared war on the Axis Powers (Germany, Japan, Italy). The U.S. entering World War II ended the Great Depression because the war created many jobs. [154] While some of the battles the U.S. fought in were air and naval battles with Japan, the U.S. mainly fought in Europe and Africa. [157] The U.S. opened up several fronts, including in North Africa and Italy. [157] The U.S. also bombed Germany from airplanes, blowing up German cities and factories. [157] On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), American and British forces invaded Normandy. A year later, the Allies had freed France and taken Berlin. [153] In 1945, Roosevelt died, and Harry Truman became president. The U.S. decided to drop two atomic bombs on Japan. Japan gave up soon afterwards, and the war ended.

    The war meant different things for women and minorities. During the war, many women worked in weapons factories. They were symbolized by a character called "Rosie the Riveter". [158] [159] Many African-Americans served in the army, but often in segregated units with white officers. [160] Japanese-Americans on the West Coast were forced to live in internment camps, though a few also served in the Army. [161]

    Cold War Edit

    After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States were the two most powerful countries left in the world. The Cold War was a period of tension between the two countries over ways of life. The two countries tried to get other countries on their side. The Soviet Union tried to get countries to become Communist and the United States tried to stop them from being Communist. [162] American and Soviet soldiers never fought in battles, but they fought indirectly in the Korean War (1950s) and the Vietnam War (1950s–1970s). [163]

    The Korean War lasted only a few years, but led to American soldiers being in Korea since then. [164] The Vietnam War lasted much longer. It started with a few American troops in Vietnam, but by the 1960s thousands of Americans were being sent to Vietnam. [165] Both wars were between a Northern Communist government helped by the Soviet Union and Communist China and a Southern government helped by the U.S. The Korean War resulted in a split Korea, but the Vietnam War resulted in a Communist Vietnam after the United States left due to American people wanting to end the war. [166] Over a quarter million Americans died or were wounded in Vietnam, which was very much a military failure. [167] The U.S. and Soviet Union argued about where they could place nuclear weapons. One of these arguments was the Cuban Missile Crisis. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. and Soviet Union came very close to attacking each other with nuclear weapons. [168]

    During the Cold War, the United States had a "Red Scare" where the government tried to find people it thought were Communist. The House of Representatives had a group called the House Un-American Activities Committee to deal with this, and Joseph McCarthy led hearings in the Senate. [169] The Red Scare led to people losing their jobs, going to jail, and even being executed. [170] Many actors and authors were put on blacklists, which meant they could not get jobs in movies or get credit for their writings. [13] [171]

    The Cold War began with an arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union to see who could have more and better weapons. This started after the Soviets were the second country to develop an atomic bomb. [172] In the United States, this started something called the "Military Industrial Complex", which meant business and government working together to spend a lot of money on large-scale weapons projects. Business and government helped each other to get more money and more power. [173] Part of the Complex was something called the Marshall Plan, which rebuilt Europe while making them buy American goods. [174] The Complex allowed for a growing middle class, but also kept the Cold War going. [173]

    Besides the arms race, another part of the Cold War was the "Space Race". This started when the Soviets launched a satellite into space called Sputnik in 1957. [175] Americans became worried that the United States was falling behind the Soviet Union, and made their schools focus more on mathematics and science. [176] Within a few years, both the United States and the Soviet Union had sent satellites, animals and people into orbit. [175] In 1969 the Apollo 11 mission put Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon. [177]

    United States foreign policy changed in the 1970s when the United States left Vietnam and Richard Nixon left office due to a political scandal called Watergate. [13] In the 1970s and 1980s, the United States had a policy of "detente" with the Soviet Union. This meant that the two countries signed treaties to stop use of weapons. [178] Under Nixon and Reagan, the United States sent troops and money to many Latin American governments to stop them from being Communist. [121] This led to violence in Latin America. [121] Around this time, the economy suffered because the United States was not making as many things as it used to, and because some countries in the Middle East were not giving the U.S. as much oil as it wanted (this was called an "oil embargo"). [162] The Middle East became very important in American foreign policy after several Americans were kidnapped in Iran in 1979. [179] In the 1980s, people in the U.S. government sold weapons to people in Iran and gave the money to "contra" soldiers in Nicaragua. [180] This was called the "Iran-Contra affair". In the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. normalized relations with China. [181] The Cold War came to an end as Communist governments in the Soviet Union and other countries fell apart. [182]

    Domestic and social issues Edit

    The United States once again had prosperity. Millions of white people moved out of the cities and into suburbs, and into Southern and Western states known as the "Sunbelt". [183] They bought new cars and television sets. [184] The birth rate in the 1940s and 1950s rose, in what was called the "Baby Boom" [185] The "Space Age" inspired "Googie" style art and architecture. [186] Many more people became part of the middle class, but there were still many people who were poor. [187]

    Poverty was most common among African-Americans. Most lived in poor neighborhoods in Northern cities, or in the South where they faced racism and "Jim Crow" segregation. [13] These conditions led to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s, led by Martin Luther King Jr. and others. In 1954, the Supreme Court found school segregation illegal in Brown v. Board of Education, though it would be several years before school segregation was ended. [188] In 1955, King led a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. [189] In the late 1950s and 1960s, King got help from Presidents John F. Kennedy, who was shot, and Lyndon B. Johnson. [190] In 1963, he led a march on Washington calling for civil rights. Soon after, Congress passed laws that made most segregation illegal. [191] Johnson also passed a program called the Great Society that helped poor people and minorities. [192]

    Gays and lesbians, who had often been persecuted, also started to ask for rights, beginning with the Stonewall riots in 1969. [193] Chicanos, Native Americans, old people, consumers, and people with disabilities also fought for rights, as did women. Though women had had jobs during World War II, most of them went back to the home after the war. [194] Women did not like that they often held jobs that paid less than men or that fewer opportunities were open to them. [195] People like Betty Freidan and Gloria Steinem founded groups such as the National Organization for Women to try and solve these problems. NOW and other groups wanted an Equal Rights Amendment that would guarantee them equality in all areas. [196] In the 1970s and 1980s, many more jobs and opportunities were opened to women. There were some women like Phyllis Schlafly who opposed Freidan and Steinem and were known as "anti-feminists". [197] It was partly because of the anti-feminists that the Equal Rights Amendment was defeated, but also because women had already gained equality in many areas and they did not want to be drafted into the army. [197]

    In the 1960s, the counterculture was created. [198] Some of the followers of the counterculture were called hippies. They had long hair, and lived communally, smoking marijuana and practicing free love. [199] The counterculture, along with college students, were the groups most against the Vietnam War. [200] They also were the groups that listened to new music known as rock and roll. [201]

    In 1973, the Supreme Court issued a decision called Roe v. Wade, which made many abortions legal. [202] The many changes led to a reaction by Jerry Falwell and other conservatives who called themselves the "Religious Right" and the "Moral Majority". [203]

    Reagan Era Edit

    Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980. He defeated incumbent Jimmy Carter by winning 44 out of the 50 American states. [13] During the Reagan Era, the country was facing through inflation, a bad economy, and the American foreign policy were not as good. When Ronald Reagan became president, he signed the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 which lowered taxes for corporations, supposedly so they could reinvest the surplus profits back into business. During Reagan's presidency, he expanded the American military creating more jobs, but also raising the deficit due to overspending. During his first term, the economy went from a 4.5% to 7.2%.

    In 1984, Reagan won in a major landslide by winning 49 out of the 50 American states. During his second term, Reagan focused on ending the Cold War. He held many meetings between Margaret Thatcher, Pope John Paul II, and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. They first met at the Geneva Summit in 1985. Later they both discovered their passion of ending the war. Reagan met four times with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who ascended to power in 1985, and their summit conferences led to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.

    Also during his second term, Reagan's Invasion of Grenada and bombing of Libya were popular in the US, though his backing of the Contras rebels was mired in the controversy over the Iran–Contra affair that revealed Reagan's poor management style. [205]

    Since leaving office in 1989, Reagan became one of the most popular Presidents of the United States. [13]

    Post-Cold War era Edit

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Cold War came to an end. This was due to the Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev starting a policy called perestroika, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the Soviet Union breaking into different countries. [206] Around this time, the United States cut down on its production of cheap goods, and had many people working in service jobs. [207] Part of these service jobs were in computers and the internet, which came into wide use in the 1990s. [208] By this time, the United States had a very large trade deficit, meaning it received more goods from other countries, such as China, than it sent to other countries. [209]

    The Middle East became the main focus of U.S. foreign policy. [210] In 1991, the United States fought a war with Iraq called the First Gulf War or Operation Desert Storm. This was to stop Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein from occupying Kuwait, a small oil-producing country.

    In 1992, Bill Clinton became President. Under Clinton, the United States sent soldiers into Bosnia as part of a United Nations mission. [13] The United States also agreed to a trade pact called the North American Free Trade Agreement (and repealed Glass–Steagall Legislation). [211] Clinton was impeached for lying in court about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky, but the Senate voted against removing him as President. [212]

    21st century Edit

    Bush presidency Edit

    In 2000, George W. Bush was elected President. Terrorists attacked the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Thousands of people died. Soon after the attacks, the U.S. and NATO went to Afghanistan to find Osama bin Laden and others who they believed planned the September 11 attacks. In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have lasted many years. By 2011, most American soldiers had left Iraq, and combat there was over.

    In 2005, the southern United States was hit by Hurricane Katrina. Much of the city of New Orleans was destroyed. In 2006, the Democrats won back Congress because Americans did not like the way Bush dealt with War in Iraq or Katrina. At the end of Bush's term, the United States entered the worst recession since the Great Depression.

    Obama presidency Edit

    Barack Obama was elected President in 2008. He became the first African-American President of the United States. During his first years in office, Obama and Congress passed reforms on health care and banking. They also passed a large stimulus bill to help the economy during the recession. During the recession, the government used large amounts of money to keep the banking and auto industries from falling apart. There was also a large oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In 2010, Congress passed the Patient Protecton and Affordable Care Act, a sweeping overhaul of the health care system. Dubbed "Obamacare", it was faced with fierce criticism from conservative media.

    A "Tea Party movement" started during Obama's presidency. This group opposes Obama's health care plan and other policies they see as "big government." Due to the recession, the Tea Party and a dislike of what Obama did, Republicans won a large number of House and Senate seats in the 2010 election. In 2011, Tea Party members of Congress almost shut down the government and sent the U.S. into default (not being able to pay people the government owes money). A few months later, many young people protested against organized and concentrated wealth during the Occupy movement. In 2012, Obama was reelected to a second term. Following reelection, Obama faced major obstruction from Congressional Republicans. This polarization in the political atmosphere and the media, lead to events such as the 2013 Federal Government Shutdown and the stalling of Obama's Supreme Court pick, Judge Merrick Garland to replace Justice Antonio Scalia. In 2014, Republicans took control of both houses of Congress, further adding to the gridlock. In foreign policy, President Obama helped crafted the Paris Climate Agreement, a major global commitment to fighting climate change. He also forged the Iran Nuclear Agreement and opened relations with Cuba for the first time in fifty years.

    Trump presidency Edit

    The United States presidential election, 2016 attracted much attention. Main popular candidates of the election were Republicans Donald Trump and Senator Ted Cruz and Democrats Hillary Clinton and Senator Bernie Sanders. Trump and Clinton won their respective primaries. On November 9, 2016, Trump defeated Clinton. Trump was inaugurated on January 20, 2017. Afterwards, there were many protests against Trump across the country.

    On January 27, President Trump signed an executive order that stopped refugees from entering the country for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns about terrorism. The next day, thousands of protesters gathered at airports and other locations throughout the United States to protest the signing of the order and detainment of the foreign nationals. [213] Later, the administration seemed to reverse a portion of part of the order, effectively exempting visitors with a green card. [214]

    On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico filed for bankruptcy after a massive debt and weak economy. [215] It is the largest bankruptcy case in American history. [215]

    On September 24, 2019, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi announced that the House of Representatives would begin an impeachment inquiry into Trump. On October 31, 2019, the House voted 232–196 to created procedures for public hearings. [216] On December 16, the House Judiciary Committee released a report specifying criminal bribery and wire fraud charges as part of the abuse of power charge. [217] The house voted to impeach Trump on December 18, 2019, making him the third president in American history to be impeached. [218]

    During most of 2020, the United States was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic that has impacted the world. The country became the highest infected and the most people dead from the infection. [219] The Trump administration received negative responses for their handling of the virus. [220] [221] Some people refuse to wear surgical masks to help stop the transmission of the virus. [222] [223] In some states, governors locked-down their states in an attempt to stop the spreading of the virus. [224]

    Starting in May 2020, racial tensions in the country began to intensify through the police murder of George Floyd causing massive protests and rioting across the country. [225] [226] The Black Lives Matter movement began in grow popularity through mixed reception. [227]


    On Experimentation

    The American experience has always been built on experimentation… Our very existence doubted by most of the world, the optimism of Thomas Jefferson became essential to the survival of our republican experiment.

    As the election of 1796 loomed… the friendship between Jefferson and John Adams waned. Jefferson reminded his friend of their experiment:

    “I am aware of the objection to this, that the office becoming more important may bring on serious discord in elections. In our country I think it will be long first not within our day and we may safely trust to the wisdom of our successors the remedies of the evil to arise in theirs. Both experiments however are now fairly committed, and the result will be seen. Never was a finer canvas presented to work on than our countrymen…. This I hope will be the age of experiments in government, and that their basis will be founded on principles of honesty, not of mere force….If ever the morals of a people could be made the basis of their own government, it is our case.” Jefferson to Adams, February 28 1796


    Harrisburg Cemetery

    Harrisburg Cemetery holds the remains of many famous Pennsylvanians, including those who contributed to the Commonwealth's and the Union's military and anti-slavery efforts prior to, and during, the Civil War. Union and Confederate soldiers wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg, and who later died in Harrisburg hospitals, are interred here.

    The statue and grave of Major General John White Geary (1819-1873), who served as Mayor of San Francisco and Governor of both the Kansas Territory and Pennsylvania, is also buried here. During the war, he served with distinction during the Chancellorville, Gettysburg, and Atlanta campaigns.

    Harrisburg lawyer and judge Mordecai McKinney (1796-1867), who helped lead the way through adversity in defending local African Americans and fugitive slaves from the South, is also interred here. Born into a slaveholding family, McKinney became a fervent abolitionist who tirelessly worked to improve the cultural life of the African American community in Harrisburg by helping to found the African American Second Presbyterian Church.

    Brigadier General Joseph F. Knipe (1824-1901), who assisted in the Union's defense of Harrisburg when threatened by Confederate forces in June 1863, also lies here, as does Simon Cameron (1799-1889), Abraham Lincoln's first secretary of war and longtime

    Erected by Pennsylvania Civil War Trails.

    Topics and series. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Abolition & Underground RR &bull African Americans &bull Cemeteries & Burial Sites &bull War, US Civil. In addition, it is included in the Pennsylvania Civil War Trails series list. A significant historical month for this entry is June 1863.

    Location. 40° 16.226′ N, 76° 52.339′ W. Marker is in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in Dauphin County. Marker can be reached from North 13th Street north of Liberty Street, on the left when traveling north. Touch for map. Marker is at or near this postal address: 515 North 13th Street, Harrisburg PA 17103, United States of America. Touch for directions.

    Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. In Honor of the Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in the Harrisburg Cemetery (within shouting distance of this marker) a different marker also named Harrisburg Cemetery (about 500 feet away, measured in a direct line) Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Bridge (approx. 0.2 miles away) Sylvan Heights Mansion (approx. half a mile away) State Arsenal (approx. half a mile away) Old Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Station (approx. half a mile away) Harris Switch Tower (approx. half a mile away) Pennsylvania Canal (approx. half a mile away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Harrisburg.


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