History Flashback

History Flashback

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Watch RFK's Speech from his 1964 Senate Campaign

History Flashback takes a look at historical “found footage” of all kinds—newsreels, instructional films, even cartoons—to give us a glimpse into how much things have changed, and how much has remained the same. Kennedy stood on the steps of Gracie ...read more

The Complicated History of Cannabis in the US

History Flashback takes a look at historical “found footage” of all kinds—newsreels, instructional films, even cartoons—to give us a glimpse into how much things have changed, and how much has remained the same. No matter the decade, one thing never changes: parents will always ...read more

Easter During WWII Featured ‘Hitler Eggs’ With Moustaches

By Easter 1941, news coverage in the United States was beginning to reflect the ominous beat of war drawing closer to the country. The traditional Easter celebrations—the 5th Avenue Easter parade in New York City, visits to the blossoming cherry trees in D.C., and coverage of the ...read more

The 1960 Winter Olympics: Where Underdogs Ruled

History Flashback takes a look at historical “found footage” of all kinds—newsreels, instructional films, even cartoons—to give us a glimpse into how much things have changed, and how much has remained the same. When the Olympic Committee announced that Squaw Valley would be the ...read more

The Dos and Don’ts of 1940s Dating Etiquette

History Flashback takes a look at historical “found footage” of all kinds—newsreels, instructional films, even cartoons—to give us a glimpse into how much things have changed, and how much has remained the same. The world of dating has always been perilous, but teens in the 1940s ...read more

Flashback: Tucked away in rural Illinois is the site of America’s first town founded by a free Black man. His descendants want you to know its history.

The pages of history turn agonizingly slow, particularly when chronicling the lives of African Americans. What else explains why the story of Free Frank McWorter, the first Black person to legally plan a community in America, isn’t taught in every middle school history class.

“If Robert E. Lee is going to continue on our historical landscape, and as a historian I think he should, then I do insist that Harriet Tubman be up there and Free Frank be up there,” said Alan Spears, a National Parks Conservation Association director.

A great-great-grandson of Free Frank and retired professor said he wonders: How many Black people are part of the national story? “The white male narrative of this country is a fabrication to honor themselves,” said Gerald McWorter, who taught African American studies at the University of Illinois.

Free Frank was an enterprising enslaved Kentucky man who purchased freedom for his pregnant wife, Lucy, then his own, by manufacturing and selling a component of gunpowder and fertilizer. He moved his family to Illinois, a free state, in 1831. He bought 80 acres for $100 and in 1836 founded New Philadelphia, a promising city of brotherly love, in Pike County, 20 miles from the slave state of Missouri. Collectively, his family acquired 600 acres of farmland.

Free Frank sold lots to Black and European Americans to secure the eventual freedom for 16 more family members.

In New Philadelphia, Black farmers worked next to white farmers Black children were schooled with white children Black families attended church with white families. Only the cemeteries remained separate.

The city and farming community grew to become home to 160 people by 1865. It also was a refuge for freedom seekers. Black people from Missouri would swim across the Mississippi River to get to New Philadelphia.

In recent years, in addition to being acknowledged as a stop on the Underground Railroad, the community was deemed a National Historic Landmark. Last year, U.S. Rep. Darin LaHood of Peoria introduced a bill to make the site part of the National Park Service.

The town was dissolved around 1880, about a decade after the railroad notably bypassed it. But two groups work tirelessly to tell Free Frank’s story — his descendants, spread widely across the country, and a small group of local residents who form the New Philadelphia Association.

Juliet E.K. Walker memorialized her great-great-grandfather’s trek in 1990 by walking from Somerset, Kentucky, to Barry, Illinois, ending just miles from his grave site, which she campaigned to have listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Walker, a history professor at the University of Texas, journeyed 400 miles over 17 days, as the Tribune reported at the time.

Walker’s mother, Thelma McWorter Kirkpatrick Wheaton, who taught in Chicago Public Schools, was the family’s first archivist. She kept the family connected, says Gerald McWorter, the family spokesperson. “She would have invented Hallmark cards before Hallmark cards.”

In college, Wheaton heard a professor describe the difficulty of noting African American history because there were few written records. Wheaton knew her family possessed some. She returned to New Philadelphia, and with her grandmother’s permission, took McWorter family documents back to Fisk University in Tennessee. Her action saved much of the family history: A fire destroyed the homestead shortly after.

Using some of those papers, Walker wrote her book, “Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier.”

Oral history has also preserved Free Frank’s story. Generations have remembered Free Frank as a man who, while illiterate, navigated a legal system rife with restrictive Black codes traveled the perilous route to Kentucky repeatedly to free family developed an interracial community and negotiated working relationships in a racist country.

Descendant Helen McWorter Simpson, in her book “Makers of History,” recounts a conversation Free Frank had with his son Solomon after buying him out of slavery. Solomon was to work hard, deal fairly with neighbors and give back to the community. He was also expected to continue freeing family.

The son honored those wishes, buying seven grandchildren and great-grandchildren within three years after his father’s death in 1854 at age 77.

“Even as a child I understood how important the McWorter name was,” said Gerald’s sister, Sandra McWorter Marsh, who grew up in Chicago and lives in Barry now. “The story was told of Frank’s birth, how his father was his owner, and his mother, Juda, a slave. The fight for freedom was very much a part of our growing up.

“By the time we had to struggle for freedom in our lives, in the ’50s and ’60s, we knew we were expected to participate in the civil rights movement,” she said.

Local history is a powerful aspect of America, said Gerald McWorter, who with his wife, Kate Williams-McWorter, wrote the book “New Philadelphia,” published in 2018, about community and family efforts to recognize the town. “Local history means there are always people in the local community who care about the value of their community. They are the load-bearing beams.”

The New Philadelphia Association was started in 1996 to get the site recognized and remembered. Its founder and president, Philip Bradshaw, is a politically connected farmer and activist who protected the town’s location from highway development. Under his leadership, the association began to buy back the land. The group is still raising funds to pay off two mortgages.

“Back in high school, I recognized the importance of New Philadelphia,” he said.

“When you see what happened at the Capitol (on Jan. 6), you look at the things we can do to show that people of all colors and genders deserve respect. The only way we get to that is to tell the stories that haven’t been told.”

Today, nothing remains of the town. Grasses grow over the buildings, long plowed under. The McWorter Cemetery is all but inaccessible. Three historic-appropriate structures sit on original foundations. A kiosk with augmented-reality stations provides information.

Still, relics have been found, and from them, history revealed.

Paul Shackel, a University of Maryland anthropologist, secured a federal grant to locate traces of New Philadelphia. Archaeologists found thousands of artifacts, from children’s toys to kitchen tools, a Tribune story reported in 2004.

Recognition could go a long way to a national healing, Shackel said recently.

“It is at the plateau of two significant places in the area — the Lincoln Home and Mark Twain’s. There could be a really amazing synergy between these three places a strong message about the history of race that will elevate New Philadelphia to the national level,” he said.

Adoption by the National Park Service will take three people to make it happen — Rep. LaHood and U.S. Sens. Dick Durbin and Tammy Duckworth. LaHood said he plans to reintroduce the House bill, and Durbin or Duckworth must bring it before the Senate.

If the bill is adopted, tourism would nurture the local economy, Shackel said.

“People will come because they will want to be at this sacred place,” he said.

Being a national park would guarantee the site remains, said Marynel Corton, the association’s director. “We . have kept it going, but we are older, and can’t always be around to raise the money to make sure it’s there. It deserves to be preserved.”

Free Frank McWorter’s story seems especially poignant now, in our state of cognitive dissonance. Confederate monuments toppled after George Floyd’s death. Just months later, Confederate flags brandished at the Capitol. An insurrection, and two weeks later, an inauguration.

“It is one step forward, two steps back,” historian Spears said. “Our challenge of the last 10 years, the last 10 months is to acknowledge what the African American experience has been.”

It has taken five generations of McWorters to get this far: Gerald, son of Festus, son of Arthur, son of Solomon, son of Frank.

“If New Philadelphia is possible, maybe America is possible,” Gerald McWorter said.

To celebrate that, the younger generation must get involved, he said.

“My grandson, who is currently graduating from high school, plays the viola. He is applying to music schools, and one says to him, ‘Tell us something interesting about you.’

“‘Well,’” he said, “‘my name is Solomon.’”

Christine Ledbetter is a former journalist with The Washington Post, Minneapolis Star-Tribune, Chicago Sun-Times and Detroit Free Press.

Freud was surprised: A brief history of the flashback

From the First World War through to the Vietnam War, studying veterans was invaluable to understanding trauma.

Published: 06th December, 2019 at 20:00

The recurring nightmares of World War I veterans prompted Freud to rethink his ideas about how dreams work, and to establish aversive memories, rather than repressed desires, as the engine of emotional life.

By the 1960’s, veterans found themselves disturbed by waking memories, which they referred to as “flashbacks,” that transported them back in time and assumed the status of truth.

If Freud observed that the tendency to relive traumatic events in dreams “astonishes people far too little,” today we are not just unsurprised that our worst memories reoccur unbidden and without warning—we expect them to.

People often assume that the phenomenon of trauma remains the same over time even if what we call it—shell shock, combat fatigue, PTSD—changes. In fact, the traumatic symptoms of veterans in each war have historically specific features and these gradually evolve and change.

When we speak of someone being “triggered,” we invoke not only Freud’s observations, but also the history of the flashback as it unfolded during the second half of the 20 th Century. How did the night-time recollections of WWI veterans seep into waking life, and how did flashing back come to define the experience of trauma?

Flashbacks are waking memories with the vivid and hallucinatory properties of dreams they produce an altered, trance-like state, during which current realities disappear and volition is suspended. Flashbacks became a feature of war memory during the Vietnam era and it is worth noting that the symptom was rarely experienced by veterans of earlier wars.

Read more about treating mental illness:

That said, the flashback, understood as a psychological phenomenon, has roots in earlier clinical experiments on traumatised soldiers. During and after WWII, for example, military psychiatrists used barbiturates to facilitate intense recollections of combat.

In the Vietnam era, such memories were reclaimed by anti-war veterans, who politicised the effects of trauma on the soldier’s consciousness. In these experimental settings, where the war memories of soldiers were retrieved—and sometimes manufactured—the flashback took shape.

During World War II, an epidemic of mental illness among soldiers combined with a shortage of trained professionals to produce a mental health crisis in the military. This crisis, in turn, proved a fertile context for clinical innovation and laid the groundwork for the expansion of professional psychology in the decades following the war.

Psychotherapy under sedation—also called “narcoanalysis” and “narcosynthesis”—was an experimental treatment used to treat soldiers with what were known as “conversion symptoms,” like paralysis, stuttering, and mutism.

Faced with many soldiers who were incapacitated by these symptoms and the urgent need to return them to combat as quickly as possible, therapists used drugs to enable a rapid form of talk therapy. As historian Alison Winter puts it, WWII became “for chemical psychotherapy what World War I had been for psychoanalysis.”

During psychotherapy under sedation, the traumatised soldier received a barbiturate injection that set him on the path to sleep. When it worked well, the drug loosened the patient’s tongue: as he became sleepy, he spoke more openly about his thoughts and feelings, and became more receptive to the prompts and suggestions of the therapist.

During this brief, unguarded phase, the therapist encouraged the patient to relive the original trauma as if it were happening again in the present moment and, in doing so, produced a cathartic release of repressed feeling—what was termed an “abreaction.”

Read more about mental health:

Therapists went to great lengths to create the experience of reliving, and when a patient did not readily recall a traumatic event they would simulate it for him. Psychiatrists Roy Grinker and John Spiegel, who pioneered the technique of narcoanalysis while treating US soldiers in North Africa, described staging elaborate reenactments in which they played the “role of a fellow soldier.”

Even patients who were initially resistant often responded to such simulation by re-experiencing the scene of war with a terrifying intensity that Grinker and Spiegel found “electrifying to watch.”

Psychiatrists who practiced narcoanalysis were frank about the fact that they sometimes suggested fictions in order to cure a soldier’s traumatic symptoms. British psychiatrist William Sargant noted that in some instances, drugged patients were not encouraged to recall their earlier experiences but rather to imagine new ones that were similar to the traumatic event.

In some acute cases, he writes, “quite imaginary situations to abreact the emotions of fear or anger could be suggested to a patient under drugs.” Practitioners agreed that imagined experiences worked as well as—sometimes even better than—actual experiences to produce the desired effects.

Such clinical experiments walked a fine line between memory retrieval and memory production, paving the way for brainwashing experiments of the Cold War.

Focused on belief, affiliation, and identity, Cold War militarism was in large part ideological, and the process of changing minds was perceived as indispensable to national security.

In this context, WWII-era experiments in healing were repurposed as forms of military aggression that targeted the mind. Psychological warfare weaponised memory, using drugs, hypnosis, and talk to implant false memories and beliefs techniques engineered to rebuild the human personality in the aftermath of war now served as a means to destroy it.

Against the background of a history of psychiatric experimentation on soldiers, anti-war veterans of the Vietnam era reclaimed their own traumatic symptoms and placed them in the service of war resistance. Activist veterans had a hand in popularising the flashback as they wrested their memories, and the authority to interpret them, from the therapeutic establishment.

In the autumn of 1970, members of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War invited psychiatrist and writer Robert Jay Lifton to join the informal conversations, or “rap sessions,” that they had begun holding with returning soldiers.

In these intense discussions, veterans talked with one another about their experiences in Vietnam and some of the difficulties they had returning to civilian life. Lifton was delighted by the invitation, which allowed him to revisit research that he had conducted many years earlier while serving as a psychiatrist for the US Air Force.

During the summer of 1953, Lifton had traveled by ship from Inchon to San Francisco with 442 American soldiers who been held captive in Korea. The two-week voyage gave military and psychiatric professionals a chance to question returnees in order to understand what Lifton described as “a large-scale, carefully organised, and coercive program of political indoctrination.”

Onboard the USS General Pope, Lifton conducted individual interviews and led group therapy sessions. It is hardly surprising that returnees, who had endured intensive interrogation in Korea, viewed Lifton with suspicion, and he found his shipboard sessions frustrating and unproductive.

Years later, he was eager for another chance to explore the symptoms of war trauma, this time in the company of fellow activists.

Therapists and veterans were equal participants in the rap sessions, and they all regarded talk about trauma as a means to political action. Activist veterans worked with therapists to remember their war experiences. Frequently, these memories involved crimes that they had committed against the people of Vietnam.

Learn more about the Vietnam war from History Extra:

Veterans then went public with these memories, narrating their war crimes in public hearings, and staging reenactments of their brutal assaults on Vietnamese villages in performances that shocked passersby.

During and after World War II, abreaction was a clinical goal, and therapists found innovative ways to encourage veterans to relive their war experiences in twilight sleep. In the Vietnam era, however, such intense recollections were perceived not as a way to cure trauma but as the veteran’s most durable symptom.

Intrusive recollections came upon the Vietnam veteran suddenly, outside of a clinical environment. Routine sights and sounds provoked memories that sometimes led a veteran to “go berserk”—losing control and acting as if he were still in a war zone.

In staged hearings and guerrilla reenactments, veterans turned flashbacks into a type of political performance, bringing repressed knowledge of the war to public consciousness.

Eventually, the radical therapists who participated in the rap sessions developed the diagnostic category of post-traumatic stress disorder, which was adopted by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980. As codified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), “re-experiencing the traumatic event” is one the disorder’s chief symptoms.

In the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, we recognise the innovations of WWII-era psychiatrists, who used barbiturates to help soldiers relive trauma, as well as the activism of Vietnam veterans who performed their traumatic memories in an attempt to stop the war.

Today, clinicians use Virtual Reality (VR) therapy to treat veterans who suffer from PTSD. The system “Bravemind,” funded by the US Army, is an immersive 3D surround that simulates generic scenes from recent American wars in Afghanistan and Iraq using not only images but also sounds, smells, and tactile sensations.

Read more about VR and mental health:

During treatment sessions, clinicians employ what is called a “Wizard of Oz” control panel to customise the intensity and pace of the scene and modulate the recreated experience in real time.

VR therapy, which uses simulation to trigger aversive memory in the name of healing, is a contemporary, high-tech version of psychotherapy under sedation. Like earlier treatment, this type of therapy assumes that traumatic memories will return, and that this recurrence is both a symptom of emotional disorder and a means to rehabilitation.

Such experimental treatment reminds us that the nature of remembering, and the afflictions associated with it, are not outside of our control. To the contrary, the history of the flashback demonstrates, in ways that may surprise us, that traumatic memory is subject to reinvention as we continue to study, interpret, and manage the effects of war on the mind.

Introducing: ‘The Food That Built America’

Sean is back with a brand new show. The Food That Built America, a new podcast from OZY and The HISTORY® Channel based on the hit documentary series from The HISTORY® Channel, tells the extraordinary true stories of industry titans like Henry Heinz, Milton Hershey, the Kellogg brothers and Ray Kroc, who revolutionized the food industry and transformed American life and culture in the process. Click here to subscribe now: https://po.

Special Series: The Election Day Massacre. Part 3.

After the horrific violence of Election Day, 1920, in Ocoee, Florida, hundreds of Black families fled the town, never to return. White farmers took ownership of their lands. And the crimes of the mobs of white vigilantes - lynching, murders, arson, theft - were covered up for almost a century. Until now.

Special Series: The Election Day Massacre. Part 2.

Before the presidential election of 1920, the Klan marched through Florida to warn Black citizens not to vote. Newspapers across the state issued the same warning. When a prominent Black resident, Mose Norman, tried to cast his vote in the town of Ocoee, a mob of white vigilantes descended on the community. They exacted a terrible vengeance, starting with the family of a local Black leader, July Perry. Photo credit: Orange County R.

Preparing and Using the Flashback Data Archive

To set up archive administration:

  1. Create one or more tablespaces to be used for data archives and grant QUOTA on the tablespaces. You may use existing tablespaces but it is not recommended.
  2. Grant the FLASHBACK ARCHIVE ADMINISTER system privilege to create and maintain flashback archives to the individual that will be administering the archives.
  3. Set up archive usage by granting the FLASHBACK ARCHIVE object privilege to enable history tracking for specific tables in the given flashback archives.
  4. Grant FLASHBACK and SELECT privileges to those users that will be querying specific tables that are being archived.
  5. Configure UNDO management by creating an UNDO tablespace and enabling Automatic Undo Management (default). Oracle recommends a fixed-size UNDO tablespace (no auto-extend) when using Temporal History.

To use the Flashback Data Archive, first create the Flashback Data Archive. Optionally, you can specify the default Flashback Data Archive for the database using the DEFAULT keyword:


Only one tablespace can be specified in the CREATE command. Add additional tablespaces to the archive using the ALTER FLASHBACK ARCHIVE command. Then, enable history tracking for a table, in this case, in two_year_archive:

ALTER TABLE employees FLASHBACK ARCHIVE two_year_archive

You can now view the historical data:

SELECT employee_id, salary, commission
(�-01-01 14:35:42’, ‘YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS’)

The history table can be indexed to improve the performance of historical queries.

As an example of using the history data, assume that rows have been deleted and then you realize it should not have been. Recover data using the Flashback Data Archive:

INSERT INTO employees
TO_TIMESTAMP(�-03-12 11:30:00′
WHERE name = ‘ADAMS’

When it is no longer necessary to track the history for a table, disable history tracking:


Caution: All the historical data for the table will be lost.

A best practice is to create a separate archive for each application module. Do not combine unrelated tables from Payroll and Accounts Payable just because the retention times are the same.

FSD History Flashback: November 10, 1984

Hello, I'm David Funk, and welcome to another edition of FSD History Flashback for November 10. Today's FSD History Flashback takes us back to what maybe the best comeback in the history of sports. Not a single person would ever foresee what was to come on this day as well as years later.

On November 10, 1984, the Miami Hurricanes hosted the Maryland Terrapins at the Orange Bowl. Miami head coach Jimmy Johnson came into the game with an 8-2 record coming off a win against Louisville.

Maryland head coach Bobby Ross had a 5-3 record, and was coming off a win against North Carolina. The Hurricanes had Heisman Trophy hopeful Bernie Kosar at quarterback. Since the third game of the season, the Terrapins had Stan Gelbaugh as the team's quarterback for Frank Reich, who was injured in the third game of the year.

Miami came out and took control of the game in the first half as Kosar threw for three touchdowns and rushed for another. Meanwhile, Gelbaugh wasn't very effective as Maryland failed to score any points in the first half. Miami had dominated the first half of the game and had a 31-0 lead at halftime.

Reich, who was the starting quarterback in Maryland's 0-2 start in 1984, had finally been cleared to play the previous week against North Carolina. As Maryland had put away the game against the Tarheels, Reich came off the bench to relieve Gelbaugh for some much needed playing time. Gelbaugh helped Maryland win five of their previous six games as they had taken control of the ACC.

Ross had decided to put Reich in at quarterback to start the second half for Maryland to give him playing time. Little did anyone know that Ross would look like a genius after one of the most shocking moments in sports history was just about to unfold.

Maryland came out of halftime with an offensive flurry that shocked the Hurricanes. Reich threw for two touchdowns and ran for another in the third quarter as they cut into Miami's lead. The Hurricanes only mustered a field goal, and Maryland had played inspired defense as Miami had a 34-21 lead going into the final quarter.

The Terrapins cut the lead to 34-28 on a 14-yard touchdown run from Tommy Neal. Maryland got the ball back and another good thing happened for them. Wide receiver Greg Hill had caught a 68-yard touchdown pass on a Reich play-action scramble that had been tipped by Miami safety Darrell Fullington as Maryland had taken a 35-34 lead in the game. It was Reich's third touchdown pass of the game, and fourth overall.

On the next kickoff, Miami fumbled the ball at their own 5-yard line as the Terrapins recovered. Maryland added to it's lead two plays later as Rick Badanjek scored on a 4-yard touchdown run as the stunned Miami crowd looked on. But Miami wouldn't go down that quietly at home in the last quarter.

Kosar threw a 5-yard touchdown on a fade route to Eddie Brown as Miami was down 42-40 late in the final quarter with a minute left. Miami was forced to go for the two-point conversion.

Kosar passed to running back Melvin Bratton in the flat on the two-point conversion attempt, but Maryland safety Keeta Covington cut him down immediately to preserve the lead.

With Miami down by two points, they attempted an on-side kick. Maryland not only recovered the on-side attempt, but came within a half of a yard of running it back for a touchdown. Instead of adding insult to injury, Reich kneeled the ball as the Terrapins ran out the clock to secure quite possibly the most incredible comeback in sports history. Maryland won 42-40.

Maryland's 31-point comeback broke the 28-point mark set by Oregon State against Fresno State in 1981 and equaled by Washington State against Stanford just two weeks prior to this game. It has since been passed by Michigan State's 35-point comeback against Northwestern in 2006.

Reich threw for 260 yards, three touchdowns, and rushed for another in this game. Kosar had 363 passing yards, four touchdowns, and one rushing touchdown as well as two interceptions. Miami also had a very costly fumble in the final quarter that eventually gave Maryland a bigger cushion of a lead.

Miami, who played a brutal schedule in 1984 as the defending national champions, had went against Auburn, Florida, Michigan, Florida State, and Notre Dame before this game. They had lost to Michigan and Florida State.

Unfortunately, this wouldn't be the only heart-breaking loss for Miami as they played Boston College two weeks later in the "Doug Flutie" game.

Maryland would not lose another game the rest of the year as they won the ACC Championship. They played Tennessee in the Sun Bowl and had also comeback from a 21-0 halftime deficit to win 28-27.

As for Reich, this was only the first time he would be associated with a memorable comeback in sports. As a backup quarterback for the Buffalo Bills in the 1992 Playoffs subbing for starter Jim Kelly, he engineered the biggest comeback in NFL history as they erased a 35-3 Houston Oilers lead in a Wild Card matchup for a 41-38 win.

What's even more amazing is that he was a backup in both games(even though he was starter for Maryland before an injury). These days, Reich is a Christian Speaker and Pastor at a church in Charlotte, NC.

Even though Maryland had a high-powered offense, no one thought a guy just returning from injury would come off the bench to knock off a powerful Hurricanes team on the road with a stunning second half performance.

When anyone thinks of the greatest comebacks in sports history, one such name should always been mentioned in the conversation: Frank Reich.

Thanks for viewing, and I hope you enjoyed today's FSD History Flashback!

Flashback History of the Submarine Insignia

Announcement was made this week by the Bureau of Navigation, Navy Department, prescribing the qualifications for officers and enlisted men for wearing the submarine insignia, which was approved by the Secretary of the Navy last March.”(a) Officers qualified for submarine command in accordance with chapter 3. Paragraphs 203-209, Submarine Instructions, November. 1919,”are authorized to wear this insignia. The insignia will be worn at all times by the commissioned personnel as specified in (a) while they are attached to submarine units or organizations ashore or afloat, but it may not be worn at any time by officers when not attached to submarine organizations.

The following enlisted men are authorized to wear this insignia: (a) Men found qualified for submarine duty in accordance with chapter 3. Paragraphs 214-215. Submarine Instructions, November, 1919, whose certification of qualification appears on their service records.
(h) Men who prior to the issue of Submarine Instructions, November 1919 were found qualified for submarine duty and whose certification of qualification appears on their service records.

One of the earliest versions of the submarine warfare insignia, circa the 1920s. https://theleansubmariner.com/2018/10/19/submarine-dolphins-part-three-the-artists-that-created-the-insignia/

As specified in (a) and (b) the insignia will be worn at all times by enlisted men while attached to submarine units or organizations, ashore or afloat. Enlisted men will not be authorized to wear this insignia if they are not attached to submarine units. A change in the Uniform Regulations covering the details of the insignia and the manner of wearing it is in course of preparation and will be issued to the service shortly.
These qualifications will be incorporated in the Bureau of Navigation Manual when reprinted.

ALL Hands Magazine JANUARY 1961

“A high point in the career of many a Navy man occurs when he becomes a qualified submariner. At that time he is authorized to wear dolphins.
The correct name for the dolphins is submarine insigne. It is one of the items of uniform included under the category of breast insignia, including naval aviator, aviation observer and parachutist insignia, among others.
The submarine insignia came into use in the Navy nearly 37 years ago. It was on 13 Jun 1923 that the commander of a New London-based submarine division, took the first official steps—by way of an official recommendation. That officer was Captain Ernest Joseph King, USN, who later became Commander-in-Chief U.S. Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations.
Captain King recommended that a distinguishing device be adopted for qualified submariners, both officers and enlisted men. With his recommendation he submitted a pen-and-ink sketch of his own. The sketch showed a shield mounted on the beam ends of a submarine, with dolphins forward of, and abaft, the conning tower. The recommendation was strongly endorsed by Commander, Submarine Divisions, Atlantic Fleet, the following day and sent on to the Chief of the old Bureau of Navigation.
Over the next several months the Bureau solicited additional designs from various sources. Several were submitted. Some combined a submarine-and-shark motif. Some showed submarines and dolphins. Some used a shield design.

On 20 March 1924, the Chief of BuNav recommended to the Secretary of the Navy that the dolphin design be adopted. A few days later the recommendation was accepted by Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., Acting SecNav.
The final design shows the bow view of a submarine proceeding on the surface of the sea. Her bow planes care rigged for diving. Flanking the submarine are stylized dolphins in horizontal position with their heads resting on the upper edge of the bow planes.
As with other breast insignia (and enlisted distinguishing marks), qualifications are outlined in the Bupers Manual, while the method of wearing, a description of the design and an illustration of the design are to be found in Uniform Regulations.
The submarine insignia in the early days were awarded only to those officers qualified for submarine command. Later the criteria became “Qualified in sub- marines.” Also in the early days, the insignia were worn (both by officers and enlisted men) only when attached to submarines or submarine organizations. Under current directives however, once qualified, the insignia may be worn regardless of the duty being performed.
As first authorized, the insigne for officers was a bronze, gold-plated metal pin. Later, both a gold embroidered insigne and a gold-color metal pin became authorized.
Today enlisted submariners may wear either a silver-color metal pin or an embroidered dolphin. The latter is either white or blue, depending on the uniform worn.
Originally, the embroidered insigne was worn on an enlisted man’s right sleeve, midway between the wrist and elbow. To day it is worn on the left breast.”


Riding Into Richmond

A pair of major cycling events put the city on course to host the Worlds. Read more

I Wanna Rock

Remembering Toad’s Place and looking to the future of live music in Richmond Read more

Miracle Cure?

The Kellam Cancer Hospital offered unconventional and controversial treatments. Read more

Let the Record Show

Volunteers work to compile Civil War-era data from Chimborazo Hospital’s intake ledgers. Read more

Before the Blaze

The Academy of Music theater was a center of entertainment for decades. Read more


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Flashback, in motion pictures and literature, narrative technique of interrupting the chronological sequence of events to interject events of earlier occurrence. The earlier events often take the form of reminiscence. The flashback technique is as old as Western literature. In the Odyssey, most of the adventures that befell Odysseus on his journey home from Troy are told in flashback by Odysseus when he is at the court of the Phaeacians.

The use of flashback enables the author to start the story from a point of high interest and to avoid the monotony of chronological exposition. It also keeps the story in the objective, dramatic present.

In motion pictures, flashback is indicated not only by narrative devices but also by a variety of optical techniques such as fade-in or fade-out (the emergence of a scene from blackness to full definition, or its opposite), dissolves (the gradual exposure of a second image over the first while it is fading away), or iris-in or iris-out (the expansion or contraction of a circle enclosing the scene).

Watch the video: Saarburger Rückblende