Review: Volume 19

Review: Volume 19

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  • Second World War
  • 17th Century History
  • The Monarchy
  • Military History
  • Russian History
  • Modern Politics

Available Issues

The Innes Review is a fully peer-reviewed journal promoting the study of the history of Catholic Scotland. It covers all aspects of Scottish history and culture, especially ones related to religious history.

Published continuously by the Scottish Catholic Historical Association since 1950, it contains articles and book reviews on a wide field of ecclesiastical, cultural, liturgical, architectural, literary and political history from earliest times to the present day. It is named after Thomas Innes (1662-1744), a missionary priest, historian, and archivist of the Scots College in Paris whose impartial scholarship stood out amongst the denominational prejudices of the time.

Editors and Editorial Board


Dr John Reuben Davies (University of Glasgow)

Assistant Editor

Dr Linden Bicket (University of Edinburgh)

Reviews Editor

Dr Miles Kerr-Peterson (University of Glasgow)
Please send books for review to Miles Kerr-Peterson, c/o 45 Grovepark Street, Glasgow, G20 7NZ

Editorial Board

Professor Dauvit Broun (University of Glasgow)
Professor S. J. Brown (University of Edinburgh)
Professor Thomas Owen Clancy (University of Glasgow)
Professor David N. Dumville (University of Aberdeen)
Professor John J. Haldane (University of St Andrews)
Professor Máire Herbert (University College, Cork)
Dr S. Karly Kehoe (Saint Mary's University, Canada)
Professor Michael Lynch (University of Edinburgh)
Professor Graeme Morton (University of Dundee)
Professor Clotilde Prunier (Université Paris Nanterre)
Dr Steven Reid (University of Glasgow)
Professor Daniel Szechi (University of Manchester)
Dr Eila Williamson (University of Glasgow)


The Scottish Catholic Historical Association promotes the study of Scotland's religious past in all its facets. It does this primarily through its journal The Innes Review which has been published continuously since 1950.

The Innes Review is dedicated to the study of the part played by the Catholic Church in the history of the Scottish nation. It is named after Thomas Innes (1662-1744), a missionary priest, historian and archivist of the Scots College in Paris whose impartial scholarship and helpful cooperation did much to overcome the denominational prejudices of his age.

The Scottish Catholic Historical Association holds annual conferences. Please click here for further information on the Association conferences. Previous conferences have focused on 'Glasgow - a story worth telling' (2008), 'Diaspora' (2009) and 'Liturgy and the Nation' (2010).'

Individual subscriptions to The Innes Review include membership of the Association. Click here for information on how to subscribe to the journal and join the Association.

Please click here for further information about the Scottish Catholic Historical Association.

January Reviews

Robert Darnton, A Literary Tour de France: The World of Books on the Eve of the French Revolution . Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. xv + 358 pp. Maps, figures, notes, and index. $34.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780195144512.

Review by Christine Haynes, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 1

Rémi Dalisson, Guerre d’Algérie. L’impossible commémoration. Paris, Armand Colin, 2018. 318 pp. Tables, notes, bibliography, and index. €24.90 (pb). ISBN 978-2-200-61713-4.

Review by Jo McCormack, Nottingham Trent University, UK.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 2

Marie-Claire Barnet, ed., Agnès Varda Unlimited: Image, Music, Media. Leeds: Legenda, 2016. x + 214 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, appendices, and index. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-909662-31-5.

Compte-rendu by par François Giraud, University of Edinburgh.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 3

Riccardo Brizzi, Charles De Gaulle and the Media: Leadership, TV and the Birth of the Fifth Republic. Translated by Jon Kear. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. xvi + 309 pp. Figures, tables, notes, author index and subject index. £123.00 U.K. (hb). ISBN 978-3-319-65641-0 £98.00 U.K. (eb). ISBN 978-3-319-65642-7.

Review by Raymond Kuhn, Queen Mary, University of London.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 4

Codruța Morari, The Bressonians: French Cinema and the Culture of Authorship. New York, Oxford: Berghahn, 2017. viii + 195 pp. Notes, illustrations, bibliography, and index. $110.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-978-1-78533-571-6 $29.95 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-178533-572-3.

Review by Raymond Watkins, The Pennsylvania State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 5

Ioana Galleron, La comédie des mœurs sous l’ancien régime: poétique et histoire. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2017. ix + 284 pp. Bibliography and index. £65.00 (pb). ISBN 978-0-7294-1196-7.

Review by Guy Spielmann, Georgetown University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 6

Response by Ioana Galleron, Université de Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 7

Elisabeth Vihlen McGregor, Jazz and Postwar French Identity: Improvising the Nation.
Lanham: Lexington Books, 2016. 290 pp. $105 (hb). ISBN 978-1-4985-2876-4.

Review by Martin Guerpin, Université Paris Saclay.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 8

Bettina R. Lerner, Inventing the Popular: Printing, Politics, and Poetics.
London and New York: Routledge, 2018. xii + 190 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $140.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4094-3676-8.

Review by Rebecca Powers, University of California Santa Barbara.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 9

Paul Cheney, Cul de Sac: Patrimony, Capitalism and Slavery in French Saint-Domingue.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017, 264 pp. Images, bibliography, and index. ISBN 13: 978-0-226-07935-6.

Review by Gerald Horne, University of Houston.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 10

Philippe Met and Derek Schilling, eds., Screening the Paris Suburbs: From the Silent Era to the 1990s.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. xii +216 pp. Illustrations, bibliography, and index. £75.00 (hb). ISBN: 978-1-5261-0685-6 £90.00 (eb). ISBN 978-1-5261-0779-4.

Review by Peter J. Bloom, University of California, Santa Barbara.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 11

Sarah Wood and Catriona MacLeod, eds., Locating Guyane.
Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2018. vi + 238 pp. Maps, illustrations, notes, and index. £80.00 (hb). ISBN 978-1786941114.

Review by Christopher M. Church, University of Nevada, Reno.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 12

Melissa Berry, The Société des trois in the Nineteenth Century: The Translocal Artistic Union of Whistler, Fantin-Latour, and Legros.
New York and Abingdon: Routledge, 2018. xi + 151 pp. Plates, notes, bibliography, and index. $150.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-138-50315-1.

Compte-rendu de Bénédicte Coste, Université de Bourgogne.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 13

Herrick Chapman, France’s Long Reconstruction: In Search of the Modern Republic.
Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2018. x + 405 pp. Notes and index. $45.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780674976412.

Review by Kenneth Mouré, University of Alberta.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 14

Matthieu Devigne, L’École des années noires: une histoire du primaire en temps de guerre.
Paris, Presses Universités de France, 2018. 333 pp. Map, tables, notes, and bibliography. €23.00. ISBN: 978-2-13-079480-6.

Review by Lindsey Dodd, University of Huddersfield, UK.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 15

Frank Cain, America’s Vietnam War and Its French Connection.
New York and London: Routledge, 2017. 243 pp. Tables, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $125.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-1382-0846-9 $30.00 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-3154-5917-2.

Review by Kathryn C. Statler, University of San Diego.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 16

Elizabeth C. Macknight, Nobility and Patrimony in Modern France.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. ix + 291 pp. Tables, notes, bibliography, and index. $115.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9781526120519.

Review by Steven Kale, Washington State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 17

Jonathan Buchsbaum, Exception Taken: How France has Defied Hollywood’s New World Order.
New York: Columbia University Press, 2017. xii + 393 pp. Images, tables, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $105.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780231170666 $35.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9780231170673.

Review by David Pettersen, University of Pittsburgh.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 18

Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Thelma Fenster, and Delbert Russell, eds. and trans., Vernacular Literary Theory from the French of Medieval England: Texts and Translations, c.1120-c.1450.
Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2016. 610 pp. $115.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781843844297 $34.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9781843844907.

Review by Sarah Wilma Watson, Haverford College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 19

Kory Olson, The Cartographic Capital: Mapping Third Republic Paris, 1889-1934.
Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2018. 320 pp. Maps, notes, bibliography, index. £85.00 (hb). ISBN 9781786940964.

Review by Catherine Dunlop, Montana State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 20

Robert Kilroy, Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain: One Hundred Years Later.
New York and London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. xiii + 168 pp. Figures, notes, references, and index. €57.19 (hb). ISBN 978-3-319-69157-2 €44.02 (eb). ISBN 978-3-319-69158-9 (pdf, epub).

Review by Melissa Venator, Harvard Art Museums.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (January 2019), No. 21

February Reviews

Colette E. Wilson, Paris and the Commune, 1871-78: The Politics of Forgetting. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016. xiii + 236 pp. Figures, notes, illustrations, bibliography, and index. £19.99 U.K. (pb). ISBN 9781526106582.

Review by Casey Harison, University of Southern Indiana.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 22

Regina Lee Blaszczyk and Véronique Pouillard, eds., European Fashion: The Creation of a Global Industry. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. xxi + 319 pp. Figures, tables, notes, bibliography and index. £20.00 (pb). ISBN 978-1-5261-2210-0.

Review by Nancy Deihl, New York University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 23

Patrick Fridenson and Pascal Griset, eds., L’industrie dans la Grande Guerre. Paris: IGPDE, 2018. 552 pp. Tables, figures, notes, and index. €40.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-11-129428-8.

Review by Charles Sorrie, Trent University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 24

Prakash Younger, Boats on the Marne: Jean Renoir’s Critique of Modernity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2017. xxv + 326 pp. $90.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-0-253-02901-0 $38.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-0-253-02926-3.

Review by Colin Davis, Royal Holloway, University of London.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 25

Vesna Drapac and Gareth Pritchard, Resistance and Collaboration in Hitler’s Empire. London: Palgrave, 2017. xx + 205 pp. Maps, tables, notes, bibliography, and index. $28.99 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-1-137-38534-5.

Review by Perry Biddiscombe, University of Victoria.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 26

Philippa Lewis, Intimacy and Distance: Conflicting Cultures in Nineteenth-Century France. Cambridge: Legenda, 2017. Xii + 187 pp. Bibliography and index. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-78188-513-0.

Review by Jessica Tanner, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 27

Jean-Louis Brunaux, Vercingétorix. Paris: Gallimard, 2018. 336 pages. €22.00. (pb). ISBN 9782070178926.

Review by Christopher B. Krebs, Stanford University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 28

Anthony J. La Vopa, The Labor of the Mind: Intellect and Gender in Enlightenment Cultures. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017. x + 350 pp. Notes and index. $79.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780812249286 $79.95 U.S. (eb). ISBN 9780812294187.

Review by Joanna Stalnaker, Columbia University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 29

Response by Anthony J. La Vopa, North Carolina State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 30

Limore Yagil, Au nom de l’art 1933-1945. Exils, solidarités, engagements. Paris: Fayard, 2015. xi + 568 pp. Notes, bibliography, index. €28.50 $37.57 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-2213680897.

Compte-rendu par Christina Kott, Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 31

Réponse par Limore Yagil, Sorbonne Université (Paris IV).
H-France Review Vol. 19 (February 2019), No. 32

March Reviews

Benjamin Deruelle, De papier, de fer et de sang: Chevaliers et chevalerie à l’épreuve de la modernité (ca 1460 – ca 1620). Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 2015. 671 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. €45.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-85944-910-0.

Review by Brian Sandberg, Northern Illinois University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 33

Mélinda Caron, Écriture et vie de société: les correspondances littéraires de Louise d’Épinay (1755-1783). Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal. 346 pp. $34.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-2-7606-3781-8.

Review by Susan Grayson, Occidental College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 34

Philippe Bourdin, Aux Origines du théâtre patriotique. Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2017. 502 pp. €29 (pb). ISBN 978-2-271-08950-2.

Review by Jeffrey Ravel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 35

Jocelyn Evans and Gilles Ivaldi, The 2017 French Presidential Elections: A Political Reformation? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. xvi + 282pp. Figures, tables, notes, and index. £101.00 (hb). ISBN 978-3-319-68326-3 £80.50 (eb). ISBN 978-3-319-68327-0.

Review by Paul Smith, University of Nottingham.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 36

Sam A. Mustafa, Napoleon’s Paper Kingdom: The Life and Death of the Kingdom of Westphalia, 1807-1813. London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2017. xxi+341 pp. Maps, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-5381-0829-1 $94.00 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-5381-0831-4.

Review by Nicola P. Todorov, University of French Guiana.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 37

Sam A. Mustafa, Napoleon’s Paper Kingdom: The Life and Death of the Kingdom of Westphalia, 1807-1813. London and New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2017. xxi+341 pp. Maps, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-5381-0829-1 $94.00 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-5381-0831-4.

Response by Sam A. Mustafa, Ramapo College of New Jersey.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 38

Fabrice Bensimon, Quentin Deluermoz and Jeanne Moisand, eds., “Arise Ye Wretched of the Earth”: The First International in a Global Perspective. Leiden and Boston, Brill, 2018. xiv + 404 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, appendix, and index. $168.00 (U.S.) ISBN 978-90-04-33545-5 (hb.) ISBN 978-90-04-33546-2 (eb, open-access).

Review by Kevin J. Callahan, University of Saint Joseph, CT.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 39

Emily C. Burns, Transnational Frontiers: The American West in France. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2018. ix + 223 pp. Series: The Charles M. Russell Center Series on Art and Photography of the American West, Volume 29. Figures, notes, bibliography, epilogue, and index. $45.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-8061-6003-0.

Review by Sarah J. Blackstone, University of Victoria, retired.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 40

Franck Salaün and Jean-Pierre Schlandeler, eds., Enquête sur la construction des Lumières. Ferney-Voltaire: Centre International d’étude du XVIIIe siècle, 2018. 254 pp., €40.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-84559-129-5.

Review by Masano Yamashita, University of Colorado Boulder.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 41

Venus Bivar, Organic Resistance: The Struggle over Industrial Farming in Postwar France. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2018. 240 pp. Map, figures, notes, bibliography, index. $29.95 (pb). ISBN 978-1-4696-4118-8.

Review by Joseph Bohling, Portland State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 42

Paul A. Silverstein, Postcolonial France: Race, Islam, and the Future of the Republic. London: Pluto Press, 2018. xiii + 206 pp. Notes, references, and index. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9780745337753 $27.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9780745337746 $27.00 U.S. (eb). ISBN 9781786802972.

Review by Melissa K. Byrnes, Southwestern University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 43

Albert Jean Michel Rocca, Œuvres. Mémoires sur la guerre des Français en Espagne (1814). La Campagne de Walcheren (1817). Le Mal du pays (1817-1818, inédit). Ed. Stéphanie Genand. Paris: Honoré Champion, 2017. 294 pp. €32. ISBN 978-2-7453-4742-8.

Review by Thomas Dodman, Columbia University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (March 2019), No. 44

April Reviews

Ronald Schechter, A Genealogy of Terror in Eighteenth-Century France. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2018. 205 pp. Figures, notes, and index. $45.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-226-49957-4.

Review by Paul Hanson, Butler University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 45

Mary Lynn Stewart, Gender, Generation, and Journalism in France, 1910-1940. Montreal, London, Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2018. x + 288 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $44.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0773553231.

Review by Kathryne Adair Corbin, Haverford College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 46

Chris Millington, Fighting for France: Violence in Interwar French Politics. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press, 2018. xxxvii + 250 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $64.95 (US) ISBN: (hb) 9780197266274.

Review by Drew Flanagan, Brandeis University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 47

Jonathan Gosnell, Franco-America in the Making: The Creole Nation Within. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2018. xv + 347 pp. Photographs, illustrations, index. $60.00 (US). ISBN-13: 978-0-8032-8527-9.

Review by Jacques Henry, University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 48

David A. Bell and Yair Mintzker, eds., Rethinking the Age of Revolutions: France and the Birth of the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. xxix + 287pp. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9780190674793.

Review by Henry Heller, University of Manitoba.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 49

Laura Weigert, French Visual Culture and the Making of Medieval Theater. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Xx + 290 pp. $105.00 U.S. (cl). Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. ISBN 9781107040472.

Review by Christina Normore, Northwestern University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 50

Megan Koreman, The Escape Line: How the Ordinary Heroes of Dutch-Paris Resisted the Nazi Occupation of Western Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. xiv + 410 pp. Maps, appendices, glossary, timeline, archives consulted, notes, bibliography, and index. $29.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-19-066227-1.

Review by Shannon L. Fogg, Missouri University of Science and Technology.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 51

Marilyn Brown, The Gamin de Paris in Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture: Delacroix, Hugo, and the French Social Imaginary. New York and London: Routledge, 2017. xiii + 152 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $155.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-138-23113-9 $27.48 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-315-31596-6.

Review by Suzanne Singletary, Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University).
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 52

Christy Pichichero, The Military Enlightenment: War and Culture in the French Empire from Louis XIV to Napoleon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2017. xi + 301 pp. Maps, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $49.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781501709296.

Review by Julia Osman, Mississippi State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 53

Nathalie Kremer, Traverser la peinture. Diderot–Baudelaire. Leiden and Boston: Brill Rodopi, 2018. xii + 240 pp. Bibliography and index. $140.00 U.S. (hb) ISBN 978-04-6793-7 $126.00 U.S. (eb) 978-90-04-36797-5.

Review by Timothy Raser, University of Georgia.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 54

Mary Ann Caws, Blaise Pascal: Miracles and Reason. London: Reaktion Books, 2017. Preface by Tom Conley. 196 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. £15.95 (cl.). ISBN 978-1780237213.

Review by John D. Lyons, University of Virginia.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 55

Marie-Christine Pioffet, ed., in collaboration with Chenoa Marshall and Stéphanie Girard. Anonymous. Le Nouveau Panurge avec sa navigation en l’Isle Imaginaire. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2017. 364 pp. Chronology, glossary, bibliography, and index. €13.00 (pb). ISBN: 978-2-406-6131-1.

Review by Bruce Hayes, University of Kansas.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 56

Bernard Cousin, Le Regard tourné vers le Ciel. Aix-Marseille Université : Presses universitaires de Provence, 2017. 222 pp. Figures, notes, table, bibliography. €21. ISBN 9-791032-01349.

Review by Christine Gouzi, Sorbonne-Université.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 57

Jennifer Wild, The Parisian Avant-Garde in the Age of Cinema, 1900-1923. Oakland: University of California Press, 2015. xv + 360 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $75.00 (cl). ISBN 9780520279889 $34.95 (pb). ISBN 9780520279896.

Review by Hannah Lewis, University of Texas at Austin.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 58

Review by Juliet Bellow, American University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 59

Helen Abbott, Baudelaire in Song 1880-1930. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. xiii + 197 pp. $72.00 U.S. (hb). Figures, tables, bibliography, and index. ISBN 978-0-19-879469-1.

Review by Joseph Acquisto, University of Vermont.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 60

Review by Susan Blood, SUNY Albany.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (April 2019), No. 61

May Reviews

Aude Volpilhac, Le secret de bien lire: lecture et herméneutique de soi en France au XVIIe siècle. Paris : Honoré Champion, 2015. Notes, bibliographie, indexe. 720 pp. €100 (broché). ISBN 9782745329394.

Review by James Helgeson, Barenboim-Said Akademie.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 62

Jennifer Solheim, The Performance of Listening in Postcolonial Francophone Culture. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2017. xii + 181 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. £85.00 (hb). ISBN 978-1-78694-082-7.

Review by Claire Launchbury, University of Leeds.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 63

Loïc Figoureux, Henri de Lubac et le Concile Vatican II (1960-1965). Bibliothèque de la Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique 102. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2017. viii + 426 pp. Sources, bibliography, and index. €94 (pb). ISBN 978-2-503-57528-5.

Review by Joseph Flipper, Bellarmine University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 64

Jacques Amblard and Emmanuel Aymès, Micromusique et ludismes régressifs depuis 2000. Aix-en-Provence: Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2017. 124 pages. Illustrations, cartes. 7 € (broché). ISBN: 9791032001233.

Review by Edward Campbell, University of Aberdeen.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 65

Laila Amine, Postcolonial Paris: Fictions of Intimacy in the City of Light. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 2018. 241 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, index. $44.95 (hb). ISBN 9780299315801.

Review by Sarah Arens, University of Edinburgh.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 66

Lela Graybill, The Visual Culture of Violence After the French Revolution. Abingdon, U.K. and New York: Routledge, 2016. 197 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $160.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-5019-7.

Review by Howard G. Brown, Binghamton University, State University of New York.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 67

Response by Lela Graybill, University of Utah.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 68

Joan Wallach Scott, Sex and Secularism. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2018. xiii + 240 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $27.95 (cl). ISBN 9780691160641.

Review by Laura L. Frader, Northeastern University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 69

Kate Rees, The Journalist in the French Fin-de-siècle Novel: Enfants de la presse. Cambridge: Legenda, 2018. xi + 232 pp. $99.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-781886-51-9.

Review by Juliette M. Rogers, Macalester College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 70

Manus McGrogan, Tout!: Gauchisme, contre-culture et presse alternative dans l’après-Mai 68. Translated from English by Jean-Marie Guerlin. Paris: L’Échappée, 2018. 205 pp. Bibliography, notes, and acknowledgements. €18.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2373090383.

Review by Ron Haas, Texas State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 71

Response by Manus McGrogan, University of Sussex.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 72

Helena Duffy, World War II in Andreï Makine’s Historiographic Metafiction: “No One is Forgotten, Nothing is Forgotten.”. Leiden: Brill Rodopi, 2018. ix + 328 pp. Bibliography and index. $146.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-90-04-36231-4 $146.00 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-90-04-36240-6.

Review by Isabelle Dotan, Bar-Ilan University, Israel.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 73

Sarah Kay, Animal Skins and the Reading Self in Medieval Latin and French Bestiaries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017. xv + 203 pp. Plates, figures, appendix, notes, and index. $49.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9-78-022643673-9 $10-$49 (eb). ISBN 9-78-022643687-6.

Review by Cary Howie, Cornell University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 74

Celia Britton, Perspectives on Culture and Politics in the French Antilles. Selected Essays 4. Cambridge: Legenda, 2018. x + 149 pp. Bibliography and index. £75, $99, €85 (hb). ISBN 978-1-78188-561-1.

Review by Jason Herbeck, Boise State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 75

Stephanie Posthumus, French ‘Ecocritique’: Reading Contemporary French Theory and Fiction Ecologically. Toronto: University of Toronto, 2017. 264 pp. $61.00 (U.S.) (cl). ISBN 978-1-4875-0145-7.

Review by Pauline Goul, Vassar College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 76

Elizabeth C. Macknight, Aristocratic Families in Republican France, 1870-1940. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017. xiv + 252 pp. Figures, notes, appendix, list of archival sources, and index. $30.95 (pb). ISBN 978 1 5261 0680 3.

Review by Carol Harrison, University of South Carolina.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 77

Arnaud Orain, La politique du merveilleux. Une autre histoire du Système de Law (1695-1795). Paris: Fayard, 2018. 397 pp. Figures, notes, and bibliography. €24.00 (cl). ISBN 978-2213705880.

Review by Darryl Dee, Wilfrid Laurier University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 78

Daniel Harkett and Katie Hornstein, eds., Horace Vernet and the Thresholds of Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture. Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press, 2017. xviii + 283 pp. Figures, illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $95.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-15126-00414 $40.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-15126-00421.

Review by Michael Marrinan, Stanford University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 79

Martine Reid, George Sand. Translated with a foreword by Gretchen van Slyke. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2018. xxi + 258 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $29.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-271-08106-9.

Review by Claire White, University of Cambridge.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 80

Jean-Baptiste Santamaria, Le secret du prince. Gouverner par le secret. France, Bourgogne (XIIIe-XVe siècle). Ceyzérieu : Champ Vallon, 2018. 338 pp. Bibliography. 25 € (pb). ISBN 979-10-267-0660-1.

Review by Marc Boone, Ghent University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (May 2019), No. 81

June Reviews

Laura K. Morreale and Nicholas L. Paul, eds., The French of Outremer: Communities and Communications in the Crusading Mediterranean. New York: Fordham University Press, 2018. viii + 296 pp. Notes, illustrations, and index. $15.00 U.S. (hc). ISBN 9780823278169.

Review by Nicholas Morton, Nottingham Trent University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 82

Benjamin Hoffmann, Posthumous America: Literary Reinventions of America at the End of the Eighteenth Century. Translated by Alan J. Singerman. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2018. 244 pp. Notes, bibliography, illustrations, and index. $99.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-271-08007-9 $34.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-0-271-08008-6.

Review by Stamos Metzidakis, Washington University in Saint Louis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 83

Julie S. Kleiva, Intertextualité surréaliste dans la poésie de René Char: apparitions et réapparitions de l’image d’Artine. Leiden and Boston: Brill Rodopi, 2018. 159 pp. Illustrations and index. €88.00 and $106.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-90-04-36877-4 (eb). 978-90-04-36878-1.

Review by Emma Wagstaff, University of Birmingham, UK.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 84

Olivier Poncet, Mazarin l’Italien. Paris: Tallandier, 2018. 288 pp. Chronology, biographical glossary, bibliographic essay, indices, color plates. 21€ (pb) ISBN 979-10-210-3105-0.

Review by Jim Coons, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 85

Ida Grinspan and Bertrand Poirot-Delpech, You’ve Got to Tell Them: A French Girl’s Experience of Auschwitz and After. Translated by Charles B. Potter. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2018. xvi + 178 pp. Timeline, notes, glossary, and selected readings. $22.50 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-8071-6980-3.

Review by Katherine Roseau, University of Lynchburg.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 86

Please see the continued discussion that occurred on H-France.

Philippe Met, ed., The Cinema of Louis Malle: Transatlantic Auteur. London and New York: Wallflower Press, 2018. x + 314 pp. Foreword, interview, varia, afterword, filmography, and index. $30.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9780231188715.

Review by Armelle Blin-Rolland, Bangor University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 87

Damien Tricoire, La Vierge et le Roi. Politique princière et imaginaire catholique dans l’Europe du XVIIe siècle. Paris: Presses de l’université Paris-Sorbonne, 2017. 453 pp. Figures, bibliography, and index. € 26.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-84050-969-1.

Review by Matthew Vester, West Virginia University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 88

Una McIlvenna, Scandal and Reputation at the Court of Catherine de Medici. London and New York: Routledge, 2016. x+224 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $140.25 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-2821-9 $28.98 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-3156-0767-2.

Review by Katherine Crawford, Vanderbilt University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 89

Pierre Blanc and Jean-Paul Chagnollaud, L’invention tragique du Moyen-Orient. Paris: Éditions Autrement, 2017. 155 pp. Maps, figures, notes, and bibliography. €18,90 (pb). ISBN 978-2-7467-4477-6.

Review by James Whidden, Acadia University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 90

Christophe Voilliot, Le Département de l’Yonne en 1848. Analyse d’une séquence électorale. Vulainessur-Seine, Seine-et-Marne: Éditions du Croquant, 2017. 238 pp. Maps, tables, figures, notes, and bibliography. ISBN 9-782365-121170 €20 (pb).

Review by Peter McPhee, University of Melbourne.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 91

Tanquy Pasquiet-Briand, La réception de la Constitution anglaise au XIXe siècle. Une étude du droit politique français. Varenne: Institut Universitaire Varenne, 2017. xv + 958pp. Notes, bibliography, index, abstract, and table of contents. 45€ (pb). ISBN 978-2-37032-144-2.

Review by Michael Drolet, Worcester College, University of Oxford.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 92

Louise Nelstrop and Bradley B. Onishi, eds., Mysticism in the French Tradition: Eruptions from France. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015. xvii + 295 pp. $135.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-3939-0.

Review by Moshe Sluhovsky, Hebrew University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 93

Shannon L. Fogg, Stealing Home: Looting, Restitution, and Reconstructing Jewish Lives in France, 1942-1947. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. xvi + 197 pp., £66 (hb). ISBN 978-0-19-878712-9.

Review by Gary D. Mole, Bar-Ilan University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 94

Bette W. Oliver, Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun: In Pursuit of Art (1748-1813). Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, and London: Hamilton Books, 2018. 108 pages, $65.00 U.S., ISBN 978-0-7618-7027-2.

Review by Katie Hornstein, Dartmouth College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 95

Jay Winter, War Beyond Words: Languages of Remembrance from the Great War to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. xxii + 234 pp. $29.95 U.S. (hb). Figures, illustrations, bibliography, and index. $30.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-521-87323-9.

Review by Susan McCready, University of South Alabama.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 96

Karen E. Spierling, Erik A. de Boer and R. Ward Holder, eds., Emancipating Calvin. Culture and Confessional Identity in Francophone Reformed Communities. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2018. xx + 306 pp. €99.00/$119.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-90-04-36051-8.

Review by Silke Muylaert, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 97

Kathryn Brown, ed., Perspectives on Degas. London and New York: Routledge, 2017. xiii + 279 pp. 58 b/w illustrations. $165 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-3997-0.

Review by Frances Fowle, University of Edinburgh.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 98

Janick Julienne, Un Irlandais à Paris. John Patrick Leonard, au coeur des relations franco-irlandaises (1814-1889). Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016. xiv + 216 pp. Illustrations (black & white). ISBN 978-1-906165-67-3.

Review by Sylvie Kleinman, Trinity College, Dublin.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 99

Michael Seidman, Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. xi, 339 pp. Illustrations. £72.99. ISBN 978-1108417785.

Review by Christopher Bannister, University of Manchester.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 100

Ruth Bush. Publishing Africa in French: Literary Institutions and Decolonization 1945-1967. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2016. xi + 224 pp. Illustrations, bibliography, appendices, and index. $120.00 (hb.) ISBN 9781781381953.

Review by Tobias Warner, University of California, Davis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 101

Review by Kandioura Dramé, University of Virginia.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 102

Véronique Machelidon and Patrick Saveau, eds. Reimagining North African Immigration: Identities in Flux in French Literature, Television, and Film. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. 272 pp. Notes, references, and index. £80.00 U.K. (hb). ISBN 9780719099489.

Review by Mohammed Hirchi, Colorado State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 103

Roland Barthes, Album: Unpublished Correspondence and Texts. Translated by Jody Gladding. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018. xxxviii + 357 pp. Chronology, notes, and index. $35.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9780231179867.

Review by Callie Gardner.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 104

Kelly Ricciardi Colvin, Gender and French Identity after the Second World War, 1944-1954: Engendering Frenchness. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017. vii + 247 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $114.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN: 9781350105553 (e-PDF) 9781350031128 (e-book) 9781350031135.

Review by Karen Offen, Clayman Institute for Gender Research, Stanford University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 105

Response by Kelly Ricciardi Colvin, Brown University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 106

Alastair Phillips and Ginette Vincendeau, eds., Paris in the Cinema: Beyond the Flâneur. London, BFI Palgrave, 2018. viii + 286pp. £24.99 (pb). ISBN 978-1-84457-817-7.

Review by Julia Dobson, University of Sheffield.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 107

Julien Weber, Donner sa langue aux bêtes: Poétique et animalité de Baulelaire à Valéry. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2018. 166 pp. Bibliography, author index, topic index. €22 (pb). ISBN 978-2-406-07416-8.

Review by Jennifer Pap, University of Denver.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 108

Dorian Bell, Globalizing Race: Antisemitism and Empire in French and European Culture. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press, 2018. vii + 368 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $99.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-0-8101-3689-2 $39.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-0-8101-3688-5 $39.95 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-0-8101-3690-8.

Review by Jonathan Judaken, Rhodes College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 109

Jessica Lynne Pearson, The Colonial Politics of Global Health: France and the United Nations in Postwar Africa. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 2018. X + 260 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $49.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9780674980488.

Review by Perrin Selcer, University of Michigan.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 110

Constance Hoffman Berman, The White Nuns: Cistercian Abbeys for Women in Medieval France. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018. xvi + 345 pp. Maps, tables, figures, appendices, notes, bibliography, and index. $89.95 US (hb). ISBN 978-0-8122-5010-7.

Review by Tanya Stabler Miller, Loyola University Chicago.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 111

Mi Gyung Kim, The Imagined Empire. Balloon Enlightenments in Revolutionary Europe. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016. xxv + 427 pp. Plates, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $54.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780822944652.

Review by Larry Stewart, University of King’s College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 112

Response by Mi Gyung Kim, North Carolina State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 113

Marine Ganofsky, Night in French Libertine Fiction. Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment. Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2018. viii + 285 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. £65.00 (pb). ISBN 978-0-7294-1215-5.

Review by Craig Koslofsky, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 114

Marc Belissa and Yannick Bosc, Le Directoire: La République sans la démocratie. Paris: La fabrique éditions, 2018. 304 pp. Notes, chronology, bibliography, and index. 15€ (pb). ISBN 9782358721646.

Review by Laura Mason, Johns Hopkins University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 115

Olivier Millet and Luigi-Alberto Sanchi, eds., Paris, carrefour culturel autour de 1500. Paris: Presses de l’université Paris-Sorbonne (PUPS), 2016. 324 pp. Illustrations, maps, figures, notes, tables, and index. 25€ (pb). ISBN 979-10-231-0523-0.

Review by Robert J. Hudson, Brigham Young University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 116

Temma Balducci, Gender, Space, and the Gaze in Post-Haussmann Visual Culture: Beyond the Flâneur. London and New York: Routledge, 2017. 236 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. £100.00 (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-4586-5 £36.99 (eb). ISBN: 978-1-315-21385-9.

Review by Allison Deutsch, University College London.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 117

Response by Temma Balducci, Arkansas State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (June 2019), No. 118

July Reviews

Robert Aldrich, Banished Potentates: Dethroning and Exiling Indigenous Monarchs Under British and French Colonial Rule, 1815-1955. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. 329 pp. Figures, bibliography, index. £ 66.67 (hb). ISBN 9780719099731.

Review by Berny Sèbe, University of Birmingham.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 119

Linda Steer, Appropriated Photographs in French Surrealist Periodicals, 1924-1939. London and New York: Routledge, 2017. x + 180 pp. 23 b/w illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $165.00 (hb). ISBN 978-1-4094-3730-7.

Review by Raymond Spiteri, Victoria University of Wellington.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 120

Patricia Touboul, Laurence Devillairs, and Alberto Frigo, eds., Fénelon et Port-Royal. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2017. 220 pp. €31.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-406-05824-3.

Review by Jotham Parsons, Duquesne University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 121

Laurence Guignard, Antoine Léger l’anthropophage. Une histoire de la cruauté (1824-1903). Grenoble : Jérôme Millon, 2018. 124 pp. 17€. ISBN 978-2-84137-346-8.

Review by Philippe Artières, CNRS/EHESS.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 122

Antoine Compagnon, Les Chiffonniers de Paris. Paris: Gallimard, 2017. 496 pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. €32.00 (cl). ISBN 9782072735141.

Review by Sima Godfrey, University of British Columbia.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 123

Mary D. Sheriff, Enchanted Islands: Picturing the Allure of Conquest in Eighteenth-Century France. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2018. xiii + 279 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography and index. $55.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780226483108 $10.00 to $55.00 U.S. (ebook). ISBN: 9780226483245.

Review by Katrina Grant, Australian National University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 124

Isabelle Tremblay, Les Fantômes du roman épistolaire d’Ancien Régime. L’interlocuteur absent dans la fiction monophonique. Leiden and Boston: Brill Rodopi, 2018. VI + 185 pp. ISBN 978-90-04-36891-0.

Review by Françoise Gevrey, Université de Reims.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 125

Rupert Christiansen, City of Light: The Making of Modern Paris. New York: Basic Books, 2018. vii + 206 pp. Figures, notes, further reading, and index. $25.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9781541673397.

Review by Sun-Young Park, George Mason University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 126

Lucien Bély, ed., Habitat et cadre de vie à l’époque moderne. Paris: Presses de l’université Paris-Sorbonne, 2016. 216 pp. €12.00 (pb). ISBN 979-10-231-0515-5.

Review by Jean-François Bédard, Syracuse University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 127

Basile Baudez and Nicholas Olsberg, A Civic Utopia: Architecture and the City in France, 1765-1837. London: Drawing Matter Studies, 2016. 28 pp. Twenty-four fold-out pages, 10 b/w and 36 color illustrations. £20.00 U.K. (pb). ISBN 978-0-9956309-0-1.

Review by Richard Wittman, University of California at Santa Barbara.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 128

William Cloonan, Frères Ennemis: The French in American Literature, Americans in French Literature. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2018. xiii + 299 pp. Notes, selected bibliography, and index. $120.00 U.S. (cl) ISBN 978-1-78694-132-9.

Review by J. Gerald Kennedy, Louisiana State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 129

Arlette Jouanna, Montaigne. Paris: Gallimard, 2017. 454 pp. Notes, bibliography, index. €24.50 (pb). ISBN 978-2070147069.

Review by Emma Claussen, New College, Oxford University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 130

Robin Gwynn, The Huguenots in Later Stuart Britain. I, Crisis, Renewal, and the Ministers’ Dilemma. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2015. xviii + 458 pp. Tables, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $140.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-184519-618-9.

Review by Philippa Woodcock, University of the Highlands and Islands.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 131

Fleur Roos Rosa de Carvalho, Prints in Paris 1900: From Elite to the Street. Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum and Brussels: Mercatorfonds, 2017 distributed by Yale University Press. 192 pp. 160 color + 25 b/w illus., notes, timeline, map, bibliography. $50 U.S. ISBN: 9780300229134.

Review by Patricia Mainardi, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 132

Cynthia N. Nazarian, Love’s Wounds: Violence and the Politics of Poetry in Early Modern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2017. xvi + 299 pp. Illustrations. $49.95 (hb). ISBN 1501705229.

Review by Jessie Hock, Vanderbilt University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 133

Franck Collard, Frédérique Lachaud, and Lydwine Scordia, eds., Images, pouvoirs et normes. Exégèse visuelle de la fin du Moyen Âge (XIIIe-XVe siècle). POLEN–Pouvoirs, lettres, normes, 8. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2018. 417 pp. Notes, figures, plates, tables, bibliography, and abstracts. €77.00 (hb). ISBN: 978-2-406-06735-1 €39.00 (pb). ISBN: 978-2-406-06736-8.

Review by Camille Serchuk, Southern Connecticut State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 134

Theresa Varney Kennedy, Women’s Deliberation: The Heroine in Early Modern French Women’s Theater (1650-1750). London and New York: Routledge, 2018. xii + 201 pp. Figures, chapter endnotes, bibliography, and index. $109.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1472484543.

Review by Ellen Welch, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 135

Susannah Crowder, Performing Women: Gender, Self, and Representation in Late Medieval Metz. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018. xiv + 263 pp. Map, charts, plates, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $120.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-5261-0640-7.

Review by Noah D. Guynn, University of California, Davis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 136

Soazick Kerneis, ed., Une histoire juridique de l’Occident (IIIe-IXe siècle). Le droit et la coutume. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2018. xi + 478 pp. €33.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-13-058782-8.

Review by Gregory I. Halfond, Framingham State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 137

Howell A. Lloyd, Jean Bodin, ‘This Pre-eminent Man of France’: An Intellectual Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Xiv + 311 pp. Notes, appendix, bibliography, and index. $100 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9780198800149.

Review by Tom Hamilton, Durham University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 138

Rachel Stone and Charles West, eds., Hincmar of Rheims: Life and Work. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015. xvi + 309 pp. Figures, tables, map, notes, bibliography, index. $120.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0-7190-9140-7 $34.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-1-5261-0654-4 $34.95 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-7849-9189-0.

Review by John J. Contreni, Purdue University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 139

Julia S. Torrie, German Soldiers and the Occupation of France, 1940-1944. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. xiii + 276 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $105.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 9781108471282.

Review by Bertram M. Gordon, Mills College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 140

Laurence Schmidlin, ed., Enraptured by Color: Printmaking in Late-Nineteenth Century France. Vevey: Musée Jenisch Vevey Zürich: Verlag Scheidegger & Spiess, 2017. 248 pp. Foreword, color figures, notes, glossary, list of illustrations, and bibliography. $55.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9783858817983.

Review by Anne Leonard, Clark Art Institute.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 141

Jessica M. Dandona, Nature and the Nation in Fin-de-Siècle France: The Art of Emile Gallé and the Ecole de Nancy. New York and London: Routledge, 2017. xiii + 214 pp. Figures, notes, works cited, and index. $126.00 (cl). ISBN 978-1-4724-6261-9 $49.46 (eb). ISBN 978-1-3151-7611-6.

Review by Peter Clericuzio, University of Edinburgh.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 142

Julin Everett, Le Queer Impérial. Male homoerotic desire in francophone colonial and postcolonial literature. Leiden and Boston: Brill-Rodopi, 2018. vii + 212 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $113.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-90-04-36553-7 $113.00 U.S. (eb). 978-90-04-36554-4.

Review by Daniel Maroun, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 143

Anton M. Matytsin and Dan Edelstein, eds., Let There Be Enlightenment: The Religious and Mystical Sources of Rationality. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018. 304 pp. Illustrations, bibliographic references, and index. $54.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781421426013.

Review by Chad Denton, Independent Scholar.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 144

Pascale Barthe, French Encounters with the Ottomans, 1510-1560. London and New York: Routledge, 2016. xi + 179pp. Illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $165.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781472420428 $49.95 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9780367175788 $49.95 U.S. (eb). ISBN 9781315583228.

Review by Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Tufts University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 145

Sue Peabody, Madeleine’s Children: Family, Freedom, Secrets, and Lies in France’s Indian Ocean Colonies. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. xiv + 344 pp. Maps, figures, notes, and index. $34.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9780190233884.

Review by Gregory Mole, University of Memphis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 146

Fabien Conord, La Terre des autres: Le métayage en France depuis 1889. Montrouge: Éditions du Bourg, 2018. 326 pp. €29.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2490650002.

Review by Venus Bivar, Washington University in St. Louis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 147

Erika Vause, In the Red and in the Black: Debt, Dishonor, and the Law in France between Revolutions. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2018. Ix + 324 pp. Tables, notes. $45.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-0813941417.

Review by Thomas E. Brennan, United States Naval Academy.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (July 2019), No. 148

August Reviews

Mita Choudhury and Daniel J Watkins, eds. Belief and Politics in Enlightenment France: Essays in Honor of Dale K. Van Kley. Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 2019. 382 pp. 5 illustrations. $99.99 (pb). ISBN 9781786941428.

Review by Bryan Banks, Columbus State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 149

Sheilagh Ogilvie, The European Guilds: An Economic Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019. xvi + 645 pp. Maps, tables, figures, plates, notes, bibliography, and index. $39.95 US (cl). ISBN 978-0-691-13754-4.

Review by Steven A. Epstein, University of Kansas.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 150

Yann Robert, Dramatic Justice. Trial by Theater in the Age of the French Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019. viii + 331 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $79.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-0-8122-5075-6.

Review by William Doyle, University of Bristol.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 151

Félix Germain and Silyane Larcher, eds., Black French Women and the Struggle for Equality, 1848-2016. Foreword by T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2018. xx + 270 pp. Notes and index. $40.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9781496201270.

Review by Brett A. Berliner, Morgan State University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 152

Daniëlle O. Kisluk-Grosheide and Bertrand Rondot, Visitors to Versailles: From Louis XIV to the French Revolution. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, University Press, 2018. xvii + 370 pp. Figures, catalogue entries, notes, works in the exhibition, bibliography, and index. $65.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-58839-622-8.

Review by Elizabeth Rodini, American Academy in Rome.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 153

Robert Zaretsky, Catherine & Diderot: The Empress, the Philosopher, and the Fate of the Enlightenment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2019. 272 pp. Notes, acknowledgements, and index. $27.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-0-674-73790-7.

Review by Mary McAlpin, University of Tennessee.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 154

Jean-Joseph Surin, Into the Dark Night and Back: The Mystical Writings of Jean-Joseph Surin, ed. Moshe Sluhovsky, trans. Patricia M. Ranum. Jesuit Studies 19. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2019. viii, 550 pp. Bibliography and index. €175.00 EUR / $210.00 USD (hardback). ISBN 9789004387652.

Review by Jan Machielsen, Cardiff University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 155

Hannah Lewis, French Musical Culture and the Coming of Sound Cinema. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2019. xii + 245 pp. Tables, figures, notes, bibliography, filmography, index. $35.00 U.S. (pb). ISBN 9780190635985.

Review by Eric Smoodin, University of California, Davis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 156

Vivienne Larminie, ed., Huguenot Networks, 1560-1780: The Interactions and Impact of a Protestant Minority in Europe. New York and London: Routledge, 2017. 233 pp. £88.00/$124.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-138-63606-4.

Review by Silke Muylaert, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 157

Marcus Waithe and Claire White, eds., The Labour of Literature in Britain and France, 1830-1910: Authorial Work Ethics. London: Palgrave-Macmillan/Springer Nature (Palgrave Studies in Nineteenth-Century Writing and Culture), 2018. xv + 268 pp. Index. € 89.99 (hb). ISBN 978-1-137-55252-5 € 74.96 (eBook). 978-1-137-55253-2.

Review by Martyn Lyons, University of New South Wales (Sydney).
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 158

Thomas Crow, Restoration: The Fall of Napoleon in the Course of European Art, 1812-1820. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2018. The A.W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Bollingen Series XXXV: Vol. 64. 208 pp. Notes, figures (160 color + 12 b/w). $39.95 U.S. / £30.00 (hb). ISBN 9780691181646.

Review by Andrei Pop, University of Chicago.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 159

Mack P. Holt, The Politics of Wine in Early Modern France: Religion and Popular Culture in Burgundy, 1477-1630. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018. xvi + 352 pp. Tables, figures, notes, bibliography, and index. (cl). ISBN 978-1-108-47188-6.

Review by James R. Farr, Purdue University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 160

Nico Wouters, Mayoral Collaboration under Nazi Occupation in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France, 1938-46. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. xii + 350 pp. $119.99 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-3-319-32840-9 $119.99 U.S. (pb). ISBN 978-3-319-81381-3.

Review by Keith Rathbone, Macquarie University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 161

Olivier Faure, Aux marges de la médecine. Santé et souci de soi. France XIXe siècle. Aix-en-Provence: Presses universitaires de Provence, Collection “Corps et âmes,” 2015. 366 pp. €20.00 (pb). ISBN 979-10-320-0031-1.

Review by Daniela S. Barberis, Shimer Great Books School, North Central College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 162

Robert Launay, Savages, Romans and Despots: Thinking about Others from Montaigne to Herder. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2018. 258 pp. $ U.S. 97.50 ISBN 9780-226-57525-4 (cl). $ U.S. 32.50 ISPB 978-0-226-57539-1 (pb). $ U.S. 10-32.50 ISBN 978-226-57542-1 (e).

Review by Daniel R. Brunstetter, University of California, Irvine.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 163

Hollis Clayson and André Dombrowski, eds. Is Paris Still the Capital of the Nineteenth Century? Essays on Art and Modernity, 1850-1900. London: Routledge, 2016. 67 B/W illustrations. Bibliography and index. xviii + 306 pp. $165 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781472460141.

Review by Masha Belenky, The George Washington University.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 164

R. J. Arnold, Grétry’s Operas and the French Public: From the Old Regime to the Restoration. (Ashgate Interdisciplinary Studies in Opera). Farnham and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2016. xi + 232 pp. Series editor’s preface, figures, tables, bibliography, and index. $132.00 U.S. (hb). ISBN 978-1-4724-3850-8. $52.16 U.S. (eb). ISBN 978-1-4724-3851-5.

Review by Annelies Andries, University of Oxford.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 165

Laura Anne Kalba, Color in the Age of Impressionism: Commerce, Technology, and Art. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2017, xvii + 266 pp. List of illustrations, notes, bibliography, and index. $84.95 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-0-271-07700-0.

Review by Jeanne Morgan Zarucchi, University of Missouri–St. Louis.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 166

Oded Rabinovitch, The Perraults: A Family of Letters in Early Modern France. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2018. xvi + 233pp. Tables, figures, charts, notes, bibliography and index. $57.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781501729423.

Review by Malcolm Greenshields, University of Lethbridge.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 167

Faith E. Beasley, Versailles Meets the Taj Mahal: François Bernier, Marguerite de la Sablière, and Enlightening Conversations in Seventeenth-Century France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018. xiii + 349 pp. Figures, notes, bibliography, and index. $85.00 U.S. (cl). ISBN 978-1-4875- 0284-3.

Review by Susan Mokhberi, Rutgers University at Camden.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (August 2019), No. 168

September Reviews

Martin Kitchen, The Dominici Affair: Murder and Mystery in Provence (Lincoln, NE: Potomac Books, 2017). xix + 322 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $34.95 U.S. (hb). ISBN 9781612349459.

Review by Aaron Freundschuh, The City University of New York, Queens College.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (September 2019), No. 169

Lucie Galano et Lucie Laumonier, éds., Montpellier au Moyen-Âge. Bilan et approches nouvelles. Turnhout: Brepols, 2017. 258 pp. Illustrations (color & black and white), tables. €85.00 (pb). ISBN 978-2-503-56852-2.

Compte-rendu par Vincent Challet, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier-III.
H-France Review Vol. 19 (September 2019), No. 170

Nursing History Review, Volume 9, 2001 : Official Journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing

ìLong neglected, the history of nursing has recently become the focus of a considerable amount of attention. Over the past decade, developments in the history of medicine, the history of women ó particularly of womenís work ó and nursing itself have resulted in a new recognition of the importance of the subject. As the official journal of the American Association for the History of Nursing, Nursing History Review enables those interested in nursing and health care history to trace new and developing work in the field. The Review publishes significant scholarly work in all aspects of nursing history as well as reviews of recent books and updates on national and international activities in health care history.î

Under the distinguished editorship of Joan Lynaugh, with the Editorial Review Board including such noted nurses as Ellen Baer, Susan Baird, Olga Maranjian Church, Donna Diers, Marilyn Flood, Beatrice Kalisch, The Review provides historical articles, historiographic essays, discourse on the work of history, and multiple book reviews in each annual issue. Articles appearing in The Review are indexed/abstracted in CINAHL, Current Contents, Social Science Citation Index, Research Alert, RNdex, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, Historical Abstracts, and America: History and Life.

Review: Volume Explores Diversity of Black Intellectual Thought

Black Americans are frequently regarded as a monolithic group that thinks, votes and worships the same way. Black scholars have worked to dispel this myth by pointing out the range and complexity of Black American experiences. Black Intellectual Thought in Modern America: A Historical Perspective is an edited volume that explores the diversity of Black intellectual thought. It includes an introduction and seven essays that highlight particular aspects of Black scholarship in America.

The editors’ introduction surveys the essays in the volume and sets out the aim of the project, which is “to complicate how Black intellectualism is academically and popularly understood.” They say their intention is to avoid the reductive generalizations and simplistic binary categorizations that frequently have characterized Black intellectual historiography.

Gregory D. Smithers writes a sweeping overview of Black intellectual thought in “‘All the Science and Learning’: Black Intellectual History in the United States.” Smithers acknowledges the medicine men, priests and conjurers who were keepers of wisdom traditions during slavery. Then, he surveys the work of major Black thinkers in the 18th and 19th centuries and their participation in efforts to abolish slavery in the U.S. He identifies the roles of Black intellectuals in addressing continued struggles following the ratification of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, the challenges of Reconstruction and battles against Jim Crow segregation.

In “Black Marxism,” Minkah Makalani discusses the Black Marxist tradition beyond its links to the history of the Communist Party of the United States of America. Makalani seeks to resist standard narratives regarding Black radicalism that tend to focus on Black engagement within the context of other movements or schools of thought. He illustrates that Black Marxists have not treated race as simply one element within a larger class struggle but have intentionally addressed the coexistence and relationship of issues of race and class.

Danielle L. Wiggins discusses the rise of conservatism among Black Americans in “Black Conservative Thought in the Post-Civil Rights Era.” Wiggins includes a variety of thinkers, from poet Jupiter Hammond and educator Booker T. Washington to comedian Bill Cosby and economist Thomas Sowell. Wiggins also notes former President Barack Obama’s emphasis on self-improvement and personal responsibility when addressing Black audiences.

Simon Wendt’s piece analyzes Black nationalist thought by Black paraintellectuals. These are Black thinkers who are typically activists and organizers outside academia and mainstream intellectual circles. Wendt addresses their relationships to mainstream intellectual traditions, their understandings of racialized oppression as a form of colonization and the gendered nature of their work. Wendt’s postcolonial approach offers a new lens to view the complexities of Black nationalism and makes space for activist intellectuals within Black intellectual traditions.

The standout contribution in this volume is Benitha Roth’s piece on Black feminist intellectuals and Black feminist theory. Roth explains that, historically, Black women activists and intellectuals have understood the importance of addressing multiple and interlocking forms of oppression. Roth provides a helpful overview of Black women’s work within U.S. communist organizations, the civil rights movement, later Black liberation and feminist movements and today’s Black Lives Matter movement.

Rather than simply describing their efforts, Roth focuses on the reception of their work. She highlights how Black women’s substantial contributions to these movements have been devalued and details the continued pressure on Black women to prioritize race over gender. Roth shows how Black women intellectuals have been less visible in public spaces while Black male leaders receive greater attention and support.

In particular, Roth explores legal scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw’s concept of “intersectionality.” Roth explains that, while Crenshaw’s scholarship is rooted in work that centers the experiences of Black women, popular uses of intersectionality have tended to erase or obscure intersectionality’s roots in Black women’s activism.

Rather than reducing Black intellectual traditions to opposing liberal and conservative camps, the essays in this volume explore the diversity of thought of intellectuals within different periods and traditions. While I understand that the intention of the volume was to discuss a range of perspectives, a volume with a unifying theme or a volume focused on a particular period would have provided greater cohesion, as was the case with Brittney C. Cooper’s Beyond Respectability: The Intellectual Thought of Race Women. The assortment of material may also prove to be too well-trodden a ground for specialists and not provide enough context for the uninitiated.

Since the volume’s introduction invokes former U.S. President Barack Obama and Black Lives Matter, I had anticipated greater attention to Black intellectual thought in the contemporary landscape. I would have welcomed an essay on high visibility Black scholars in our contemporary media landscape, for instance bell hooks’ critiques of Beyoncé’s feminism. Also, given the coordinated right-wing attacks on Black scholars such as Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor and Johnny Eric Williams, some discussion of the perils of public scholarship by Black intellectuals would have been useful.

Dr. Nyasha Junior is an assistant professor of Hebrew Bible in the Department of Religion at Temple University in Philadelphia.

Sport History Review, Volume 51, 2020, Issue 2

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About this journal

Sport History Review (SHR) is the continuation of the Canadian Journal of the History of Sport: Revue Canadienne De L’Histoire des Sports, published from 1970 to 1995. Sport History Review is devoted to promoting the study of all facets of the broad field of the history of sport. The journal is published for sport history specialists who engage in research and/or teaching within an academic context as well as for those with special interest in sport history.

Although SHR is published in North America, the editor and editorial board are committed to addressing topics and issues of international interest. Therefore, articles whose method of analysis or application and appeal is more universally or fundamentally relevant to an international readership are of particular interest toSHR.

Sport History Review encourages the submission of scholarly articles, methodological and research notes, and commentaries. Because young scholars are critically important to the development of any discipline, SHR encourages graduate students and young professionals to submit their work for publication. Book review suggestions may be made to the Book Review Editor, who is solely responsible for assigning and editing book reviews.

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Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) can result in several neurological complications including Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). It is an acute parainfectious paralytic neuropathy. This review summarizes the demographic features, clinical presentation, diagnostics workup, and management strategies of COVID-19 associated GBS reported in the literature. We searched Medline, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar using pre-defined keywords. We included all kinds of manuscripts in the English language only. Demographics, clinical features, diagnostic workup, management, and outcomes were documented in the datasheet. We identified 24 cases of COVID-19 associated GBS. Most were reported from Italy, followed by the USA. The majority were males (18/24) and the age ranged from 23 -84 years. Clinical presentation was typical sensory-motor GBS in most. Nine patients had facial palsy of which five had bilateral involvement. Two patients had bilateral abducent nerve palsy while two presented as paraparetic GBS variant with autonomic dysfunction. Electrodiagnostics studies were conducted in 17 patients only and 12 had typical features of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin was the preferred mode of treatment in most of the patient. There was one death, and most were discharged to rehabilitation or home. GBS is an important neurological complication associated with COVID-19. More data are needed to establish a casualty. However, most cases have a post-infectious onset with male preponderance. Most of the cases have a typical presentation but some may present atypically. The prognosis is generally good


The German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. [19] [20] This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local (Bavarian) dialect.

Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. [21] At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria.

The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province. Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. [22]

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians, Slavs and Avars. [23] Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, and introduced Christianity. [23] As part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976. [24]

The first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. [24] In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished. [25]

As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. [25] His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. [26] Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.

The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. [27] [28] In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian, African, Asian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. [27] [28]

In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. [29] Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires, particularly evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, [30] of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves". [31] In late September 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent launched the first Siege of Vienna, which unsuccessfully ended, according to Ottoman historians, with the snowfalls of an early beginning winter.

17th and 18th centuries

During the long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in 1683 (under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski), [32] a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.

Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. With the rise of Prussia, the Austrian–Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland (in 1772 and 1795).

19th century

Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Two years earlier, [33] the Empire of Austria was founded. From 1792 to 1801, the Austrians had suffered 754,700 casualties. [34] In 1814, Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars.

It emerged from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as one of the continent's four dominant powers and a recognised great power. The same year, the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was founded under the presidency of Austria. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the 1848 revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany. [35]

The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a Greater Germany, or a Greater Austria or just the German Confederation without Austria at all. As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of 1848, the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. In 1864, Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz, [35] Austria had to leave the German Confederation and no longer took part in German politics. [36] [37]

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I. [38] The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various Slavic groups, including Croats, Czechs, Poles, Rusyns, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians, as well as large Italian and Romanian communities.

As a result, ruling Austria-Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police. Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.

Many Austrians of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria to Germany. [39] Some Austrians such as Karl Lueger also used pan-Germanism as a form of populism to further their own political goals. Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolized him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours (black, red, and yellow), although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire. [40]

Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character". [41] The Austro-Hungarian Empire caused ethnic tension between the German Austrians and the other ethnic groups. Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria with Germany. [42]

A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president Kasimir Count Badeni's language decree of 1897, which made German and Czech co-official languages in Bohemia and required new government officials to be fluent in both languages. This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke German but not the other way around. The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the "Away from Rome" (German: Los-von-Rom) movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church. [43]

20th century

As the Second Constitutional Era began in the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary took the opportunity to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. [44] The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip [45] was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I, which eventually led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I. [46]

On 21 October 1918, the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria (Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich). On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business. [47]

This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November 1918, solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic. The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat (national council) was passed on 10 November 1920. [48]

The Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 (for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November 1918, creating new states and altering others. The German-speaking parts of Austria which had been part of Austria-Hungary were reduced to a rump state named The Republic of German-Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich), though excluding the predominantly German-speaking South Tyrol. [49] [50] [51] The desire for Anschluss (annexation of Austria to Germany) was a popular opinion shared by all social circles in both Austria and Germany. [52] On 12 November, German-Austria was declared a republic, and named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" (Article 2). [53] The Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles explicitly forbid union between Austria and Germany. [54] [55] The treaties also forced German-Austria to rename itself as "Republic of Austria" which consequently led to the first Austrian Republic. [56] [57]

Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Italy. [58] These included the provinces of South Tyrol (which became part of Italy) and German Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). The status of German Bohemia (Sudetenland) later played a role in sparking the Second World War. [59]

The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the 1980s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government. Between 1918 and 1919, Austria was known as the State of German Austria (Staat Deutschösterreich). Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late 1919. [59]

The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia) was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920 and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria. This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria.

Interwar period and World War II

After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency. In autumn 1922, Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations. [60] The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy, stabilise the currency, and improve Austria's general economic condition. The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. In 1925, the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10,000:1. Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability. From 1925 to 1929, the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing [ clarification needed ] after Black Tuesday.

The First Austrian Republic lasted until 1933, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament", established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism. [61] [62] The two big parties at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had paramilitary armies [63] the Social Democrats' Schutzbund was now declared illegal, but was still operative [63] as civil war broke out. [61] [62] [64]

In February 1934, several members of the Schutzbund were executed, [65] the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated. [64] On 1 May 1934, the Austrofascists imposed a new constitution ("Maiverfassung") which cemented Dollfuss's power, but on 25 July he was assassinated in a Nazi coup attempt. [66] [67]

His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent. [68] He announced a referendum on 9 March 1938, to be held on 13 March, concerning Austria's independence from Germany. On 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis took over government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place. [69] On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss of Austria was officially declared. Two days later, Austrian-born Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich" on Vienna's Heldenplatz. He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April 1938.

Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938. They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the 813-member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. [70] Turnout in the election was officially 99.5%, with 98.9% voting "yes". In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, 99.71% of an electorate of 4,484,475 officially went to the ballots, with a positive tally of 99.73%. [71] Although most Austrians favoured the Anschluss, in certain parts of Austria the German soldiers were not always welcomed with flowers and joy, especially in Vienna which had Austria's largest Jewish population. [72] Nevertheless, despite the propaganda and the manipulation and rigging which surrounded the ballot box result, there was massive genuine support for Hitler for fulfilling the Anschluss, [73] since many Germans from both Austria and Germany saw it as completing the long overdue unification of all Germans into one state. [74]

On 12 March 1938, Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country. The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" (i.e. extra-legal) phase, but was soon structured legally and bureaucratically to strip Jewish citizens of any assets they possessed. At that time Adolf Eichmann, who grew up in Austria, was transferred to Vienna to persecute the Jews. During the November pogrom in 1938 ("Reichskristallnacht"), Jews and Jewish institutions such as synagogues were victims of severe violent attacks in Vienna, Klagenfurt, Linz, Graz, Salzburg, Innsbruck and several cities in Lower Austria. [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] Otto von Habsburg, a vehement opponent of the Nazis, the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, an honorary citizen of hundreds of places in Austria and partly envisaged by Schuschnigg as a monarchical option, was in Belgium at the time. He spoke out against the Anschluss and was then wanted by the Nazi regime and expropriated and should be shot immediately if he is caught. [80] The Nazis renamed Austria in 1938 as "Ostmark" [69] until 1942, when it was again renamed and called "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" (Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue). [81] [82]

Though Austrians made up only 8% of the population of the Third Reich, [83] some of the most prominent Nazis were native Austrians, including Adolf Hitler, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Franz Stangl, Alois Brunner, Friedrich Rainer and Odilo Globocnik, [84] as were over 13% of the SS and 40% of the staff at the Nazi extermination camps. [83] In the Reichsgau, besides the main camp KZ-Mauthausen, there were numerous sub-camps in all federal states where Jews and prisoners were killed, tortured and exploited. [85] At this time, because the territory was outside the operational radius of the Allied aircraft, the armaments industry was greatly expanded through the use of concentration camp prisoners and forced labor, especially for fighter planes, tanks and missiles. [86] [87] [88]

Most of the resistance groups were soon crushed by the Gestapo. While the plans of the group around Karl Burian to blow up the Gestapo headquarters in Vienna were uncovered, [89] the important group around the later executed priest Heinrich Maier managed to contact the Allies. This so-called Maier-Messner group was able to send the Allies information about armaments factories for V-1, V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks and aircraft (Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, etc.), which was important for Operation Crossbow and Operation Hydra, both preliminary missions for Operation Overlord. This resistance group, which was in contact with the American secret service OSS, soon provided information about mass executions and concentration camps such as Auschwitz. The aim of the group was to let Nazi Germany lose the war as quickly as possible and to re-establish an independent Austria. [90] [91] [92]

Vienna fell on 13 April 1945, during the Soviet Vienna Offensive, just before the total collapse of the Third Reich. The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps. However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich.

Karl Renner and Adolf Schärf (Socialist Party of Austria [Social Democrats and Revolutionary Socialists]), Leopold Kunschak (Austria's People's Party [former Christian Social People's Party]), and Johann Koplenig (Communist Party of Austria) declared Austria's secession from the Third Reich by the Declaration of Independence on 27 April 1945 and set up a provisional government in Vienna under state Chancellor Renner the same day, with the approval of the victorious Red Army and backed by Joseph Stalin. [93] (The date is officially named the birthday of the second republic.) At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule. On 1 May 1945, the federal constitution of 1929, which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May 1934, was declared valid again. Total military deaths from 1939 to 1945 are estimated at 260,000. [94] Jewish Holocaust victims totalled 65,000. [95] About 140,000 Jewish Austrians had fled the country in 1938–39. Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes (hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone), a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in 1992.

Contemporary era

Much like Germany, Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. [96] As forecast in the Moscow Declaration in 1943, a subtle difference was seen in the treatment of Austria by the Allies. [93] The Austrian government, consisting of Social Democrats, Conservatives, and Communists (until 1947), and residing in Vienna, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was recognised by the Western Allies in October 1945 after some doubts that Renner could be Stalin's puppet. Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoided. Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies. [97]

On 15 May 1955, after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War, Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers. On 26 October 1955, after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. [98] This day is now Austria's National Day, a public holiday. [99]

The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929, which was reintroduced in 1945. The system came to be characterised by Proporz, meaning that most posts of political importance were split evenly between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). [100] Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, business people, farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus. [101]

Since 1945, governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: 1966–1970 (ÖVP) and 1970–1983 (SPÖ). During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country.

Kurt Waldheim, a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes, was elected President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. [102]

Following a referendum in 1994, at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1995. [103]

The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians (ex. Dr Werner Fasslabend (ÖVP) in 1997). [ citation needed ] In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace" the constitution has been amended accordingly. [ citation needed ] Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in 2011, none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore. [ citation needed ]

The Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna, the country's capital and most populous city. Austria became a federal, representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920. The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of 1920, amended in 1929, which was reenacted on 1 May 1945. [104]

The head of state is the Federal President (Bundespräsident), who is directly elected by popular majority vote, with a run-off between the top-scoring candidates if necessary. The head of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler), who is selected by the President and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament.

The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat. Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004. [105]

Austria's parliament consists of two chambers. The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 16 has the right to vote. The voting age was lowered from 18 in 2007.

While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote for all parties in federal elections (Nationalratswahlen) to participate in the proportional allocation of seats, there remains the possibility of being elected to a seat directly in one of the 43 regional electoral districts (Direktmandat).

The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time this is referred to as a Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence"). A constitutional convention, called the Österreich -Konvent [106] was convened on 30 June 2003 to consider reforms to the constitution, but failed to produce a proposal that would command a two-thirds majority in the Nationalrat, the margin necessary for constitutional amendments and/or reform.

While the bicameral Parliament and the Government constitute the legislative and executive branches, respectively, the courts are the third branch of Austrian state powers. The Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) exerts considerable influence on the political system because of its power to invalidate legislation and ordinances that are not in compliance with the constitution. Since 1995, the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union. Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution.

Since 2006

After general elections held in October 2006, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) emerged as the strongest party, and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) came in second, having lost about 8% of its previous polling. [107] [108] Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties. In January 2007 the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor. This coalition broke up in June 2008.

Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (SPÖ and ÖVP) but together they still held 70% of the votes, with the Social Democrats holding slightly more than the other party. They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. The Green Party came in third with 11% of the vote. The FPÖ and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria, both on the political right, were strengthened during the election but taken together received less than 20% of the vote.

In the legislative elections of 2013, the Social Democratic Party received 27% of the vote and 52 seats People's Party 24% and 47 seats, thus controlling together the majority of the seats. The Freedom Party received 40 seats and 21% of the votes, while the Greens received 12% and 24 seats. Two new parties, Stronach and the NEOS, received less than 10% of the vote, and 11 and nine seats respectively.

After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring 2017 a snap election was proclaimed for October 2017. The Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning 31.5% of votes and 62 of the 183 seats. The Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) finished second with 52 seats and 26.9% votes, slightly ahead of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which received 51 seats and 26%. NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats (5.3 percent of votes), and PILZ (which split from the Green Party at the start of the campaign) entered parliament for the first time and came in fifth place with 8 seats and 4.4% The Green Party failed with 3.8% to cross the 4% threshold and was ejected from parliament, losing all of its 24 seats. The ÖVP decided to form a coalition with the FPÖ. The new government between the centre-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz was sworn in on 18 December 2017, but the coalition government later collapsed and new elections were called for 29 September 2019. The elections lead to another landslide victory (37.5%) of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) who formed a coalition-government with the reinvigorated (13.9%) Greens, which was sworn in with Kurz as chancellor on January 7, 2020.

Foreign relations

The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the occupation of Austria following World War II and recognised Austria as an independent and sovereign state. On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland.

Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Also in 1995, it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace (although it was careful to do so only after Russia joined) and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still fully valid is to not allow foreign military bases in Austria. [109] Austria signed the UN's Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, [110] which was opposed by all NATO members. [111]

Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). As an OSCE-participating State, Austria's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.


The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces (German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription. [112] All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months compulsory military service, followed by an eight-year reserve obligation. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service. [15] Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead. Since 1998, women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers.

The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum FüUZ). Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy.

Branches of the Austrian Armed Forces

Austrian Army
Leopard 2 main battle tank

Austrian Air Force
Eurofighter Typhoon fighter aircraft

In 2012, Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.8% of its GDP. The Army currently has about 26,000 [113] soldiers, of whom about 12,000 are conscripts. As head of state, Austrian President is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the Bundesheer. Command of the Austrian Armed Forces is exercised by the Minister of Defence, as of May 2020 [update] : Klaudia Tanner.

Since the end of the Cold War, and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours (Hungary and former Czechoslovakia), the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants. This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states. Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters. [114] They may generally not be used as auxiliary police forces.

Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality, Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions. The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e.g. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo.

Administrative divisions

Austria is a federal republic consisting of nine states (German: Bundesländer). [15] The states are sub-divided into districts (Bezirke) and statutory cities (Statutarstädte). Districts are subdivided into municipalities (Gemeinden). Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. Vienna is unique in that it is both a city and a state.

Austria's constituent states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.g. in matters of culture, social welfare, youth and nature protection, hunting, building, and zoning ordinances. In recent years, it has been questioned whether a small country should maintain ten subnational legislatures. [ citation needed ] Consolidation of local governments has already been undertaken at the Gemeinde level for purposes of administrative efficiency and cost savings (Gemeindezusammenlegung).

State Capital Area
(sq km)
(1 Jan 2017)
per km2
GDP (euro)
(2012 Eurostat)
GDP per
Burgenland Eisenstadt 3,965 291,942 73.6 7.311 bn 25,600
Carinthia Klagenfurt 9,536 561,077 58.8 17.62 bn 31,700
Lower Austria Sankt Pölten 19,178 1,665,753 86.9 49.75 bn 30,800
Salzburg Salzburg 7,154 549,263 76.8 23.585 bn 44,500
Styria Graz 16,401 1,237,298 75.4 40.696 bn 33,600
Tyrol Innsbruck 12,648 746,153 59.0 28.052 bn 39,400
Upper Austria Linz 11,982 1,465,045 122.3 53.863 bn 38,000
Vienna 415 1,867,582 4,500 81.772 bn 47,300
Vorarlberg Bregenz 2,601 388,752 149.5 14.463 bn 38,900
[115] [116]

Corrections system

The Ministry in charge of the Austrian corrections system is the Ministry of Justice. [117] The Ministry of Justice is based out of Vienna. [117] The head of the prison administration falls under the title of Director General. [117] The total prison population rate as of July 2017 is 8,290 people. [117] Pre-trial detainees make up 23.6%, female prisoners make up 5.7%, juveniles make up 1.4%, and foreign prisoners make up 54.2% of the prison system. [117] Since 2000 the population has risen over 2,000 and has stabilized at over 8,000. [117]

Austria is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Alps. [118] The Central Eastern Alps, Northern Limestone Alps and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria. Of the total area of Austria (84,000 km 2 or 32,433 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country.

Austria lies between latitudes 46° and 49° N, and longitudes 9° and 18° E.

It can be divided into five areas, the biggest being the Eastern Alps, which constitute 62% of the nation's total area. The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps and the Carpathians account for around 12% and the foothills in the east and areas surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about 12% of the total landmass. The second greater mountain area (much lower than the Alps) is situated in the north. Known as the Austrian granite plateau, it is located in the central area of the Bohemian Mass and accounts for 10% of Austria. The Austrian portion of the Vienna basin makes up the remaining 4%.

Phytogeographically, Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests, and Western European broadleaf forests. [119] Austria had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.55/10, ranking it 149th globally out of 172 countries. [120]


The greater part of Austria lies in the cool/temperate climate zone, where humid westerly winds predominate. With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. Although Austria is cold in the winter (−10 to 0 °C), summer temperatures can be relatively high, [122] with average temperatures in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 40.5 °C (105 °F) in August 2013. [123]

According to the Köppen Climate Classification Austria has the following climate types: Oceanic (Cfb), Cool/Warm-summer humid continental (Dfb), Subarctic/Subalpine (Dfc), Tundra/Alpine (ET) and Ice-Cap (EF). It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe. As well, at higher altitudes, summers are usually considerably cooler than in the valleys/lower altitudes. The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe. [123] [124] [125]

Climate data for Lech, Vorarlberg (1440 m average temperatures 1982 – 2012) Dfc, bordering on Dfb.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −0.7
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.5
Average low °C (°F) −8.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59
Source 1: [123]
Source 2: "Lech climate data".

Austria consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita, [126] due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy. Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies. Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy. Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria.

Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Since Austria became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP reached 3.3% in 2006. [127] At least 67% of Austria's imports come from other European Union member states. [128]

Austria indicated on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised. [129]

The Financial crisis of 2007–2008 dented the economy of Austria in other ways as well. It caused, for example, the Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International to be purchased in December 2009 by the government for 1 euro owing to credit difficulties, thus wiping out the €1.63bn of BayernLB. As of February 2014 [update] , the HGAA situation was unresolved, [130] causing Chancellor Werner Faymann to warn that its failure would be comparable to the 1931 Creditanstalt event. [131]

Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between 1995 and 2010, 4,868 mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of 163 bil. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced. [132] The largest transactions with involvement of Austrian companies [133] have been: the acquisition of Bank Austria by Bayerische Hypo- und Vereinsbank for 7.8 billion EUR in 2000, the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg by Volkswagen Group for 3.6 billion EUR in 2009, [134] and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română by Erste Group for 3.7 bil. EUR in 2005. [135]

Tourism in Austria accounts for almost 9% of its gross domestic product. [136] In 2007, Austria ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.9 billion US$. [137] In international tourist arrivals, Austria ranked 12th with 20.8 million tourists. [137]

Infrastructure and natural resources

In 1972, the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube, following a unanimous vote in parliament. However, in 1978, a referendum voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for, [138] and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity although the nuclear power plant was already finished.

Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower. [139] Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass powerplants, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89% [140] of total use in Austria, with the rest being produced by gas and oil power plants.

Compared to most European countries, Austria is ecologically well endowed. Its biocapacity (or biological natural capital) is more than double of the world average: In 2016, Austria had 3.8 global hectares [141] of biocapacity per person within its territory, compared to the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. In contrast, in 2016, they used 6.0 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means that Austrians use about 60 percent more biocapacity than Austria contains. As a result, Austria is running a biocapacity deficit. [141]

Austria's population was estimated to be nearly 9 million (8.9) in 2020 by the Statistik Austria. [142] The population of the capital, Vienna, exceeds 1.9 million [143] (2.6 million, including the suburbs), representing about a quarter of the country's population. It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living.

Vienna is by far the country's largest city. Graz is second in size, with 291,007 inhabitants, followed by Linz (206,604), Salzburg (155,031), Innsbruck (131,989), and Klagenfurt (101,303). All other cities have fewer than 100,000 inhabitants.

According to Eurostat, in 2018 there were 1.69 million foreign-born residents in Austria, corresponding to 19.2% of the total population. Of these, 928,700 (10.5%) were born outside the EU and 762,000 (8.6%) were born in another EU Member State. [144] There are more than 483,100 descendants of foreign-born immigrants. [145]

Turks form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 350,000. [146] 13,000 Turks were naturalised in 2003 and an unknown number have arrived in Austria at the same time. While 2,000 Turks left Austria in the same year, 10,000 immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth. [147] Together, Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Macedonians, and Slovenes make up about 5.1% of Austria's total population.

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2017 was estimated at 1.52 children born per woman, [148] below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.83 children born per woman in 1873. [149] In 2015, 42.1% of births were to unmarried women. [150] Austria subsequently has the 12th oldest population in the world, with the average age of 44.2 years. [151] The life expectancy in 2016 was estimated at 81.5 years (78.9 years male, 84.3 years female). [152]

Statistics Austria estimates that nearly 10 million people will live in the country by 2080. [153]

Largest cities


Standard Austrian German is spoken in Austria, though used primarily just in education, publications, announcements and websites. It is mostly identical to the Standard German of Germany but with some vocabulary differences. This Standard German language is used in formal contexts across Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as among those with significant German-speaking minorities: Italy, Belgium and Denmark. However, the common spoken language of Austria is not the Standard German taught in schools but Austro-Bavarian: a group of Upper German local dialects with varying degrees of difficulty being understood by each other as well as by speakers of non-Austrian German dialects. Taken as a collective whole, German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by 88.6% of the population, which includes the 2.5% German-born citizens who reside in Austria, followed by Turkish (2.28%), Serbian (2.21%), Croatian (1.63%), English (0.73%), Hungarian (0.51%), Bosnian (0.43%), Polish (0.35%), Albanian (0.35%), Slovenian (0.31%), Czech (0.22%), Arabic (0.22%), and Romanian (0.21%). [12]

The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority while in the easternmost state, Burgenland (formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria-Hungary), there are significant Hungarian- and Croatian-speaking minorities. Of the remaining number of Austria's people who are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations. Guest workers (Gastarbeiter) and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria. Since 1994 the Roma–Sinti (gypsies) have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria.

According to census information published by Statistik Austria for 2001 [12] there were a total of 710,926 foreign nationals living in Austria. Of these, the largest by far are 283,334 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia (of whom 135,336 speak Serbian 105,487 Croatian 31,591 Bosnian – i.e. 272,414 Austrian resident native speakers in total, plus 6,902 Slovenian and 4,018 Macedonian speakers).

The second largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the Turks (including minority of Kurds) with a number of 200,000 to 300,000 who currently live in Austria. [154]

The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the 124,392 who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria (mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, Romania, or the former Soviet Union) 123,417 English 24,446 Albanian 17,899 Polish 14,699 Hungarian 12,216 Romanian 10,000 Malayali 7,982 Arabic 6,891 Slovak 6,707 Czech 5,916 Persian 5,677 Italian 5,466 Russian 5,213 French 4,938 Chinese 4,264 Spanish 3,503 Bulgarian. The numbers for other languages fall off sharply below 3,000.

In 2006, some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society. [155] For the national rules, see Austrian nationality law – Naturalisation.

Ethnic groups

Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II. [156] [157] [158] Austria was part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until its ending in 1806 and had been part of the German Confederation, a loose association of 39 separate German-speaking countries, until the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, which resulted in the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation led by Prussia. In 1871, Germany was founded as a nation-state, Austria was not a part of it. After World War I and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" (Republic of German-Austria) and that it was part of the German Republic. A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state. After the events of World War II and Nazism, Austria as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity among its populace, [ citation needed ] and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans. [159] However, a minority of Austrians still consider themselves to be Germans and advocate for a "Greater Germany", arguing that the historic boundaries of the German people goes beyond the boundaries of modern-day countries, especially Austria and Germany.

Austrians may be described either as a nationality or as a homogeneous Germanic ethnic group, [160] that is closely related to neighboring Germans, Liechtensteiners and German-speaking Swiss. [161] Today 91.1% of the population are regarded as ethnic Austrians. [162]

The Turks are the largest single immigrant group in Austria, [163] closely followed by the Serbs. [164] Serbs form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 300,000 people. [165] [166] [167] Historically, Serbian immigrants moved to Austria during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Vojvodina was under Imperial control. Following World War II the number of Serbs expanded again, and today the community is very large. The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in 1936. Today, Serbs in Austria are mainly found in Vienna, Salzburg, and Graz.

An estimated 13,000 to 40,000 Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia (the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats (around 30,000) [168] and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955. [98] The Slovenes in the Austrian state of Styria (estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not have special rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise. [169]

The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene and Croat Austrians live alongside the German-speaking population (as required by the 1955 State Treaty) is still to be fully implemented in the view of some, while others believe that the treaty-derived obligations have been met (see below). Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims, [ citation needed ] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory. The former governor of Carinthia Jörg Haider has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn 2005 by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia. A poll by the Kärntner Humaninstitut conducted in January 2006 stated that 65% of Carinthians were not against an increase of bilingual topographic signs, since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of 1955 had already been fulfilled according to their point of view.

Another interesting phenomenon is the so-called "Windischen-Theorie" stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische (a traditional German name for Slavs), based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes, who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools. The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago.


In 2001, about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic, [173] while about 5% considered themselves Protestants. [173] Austrian Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, [174] are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income—about 1%) to their church this payment is called "Kirchenbeitrag" ("Ecclesiastical/Church contribution"). Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined. Data for 2018 from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,050,000 members, or 56.9% of the total Austrian population. Sunday church attendance was 605,828 or 7% of the total Austrian population in 2015. [175] The Lutheran church also recorded a loss of 74,421 adherents between 2001 and 2016.

The 2001 census report indicated that about 12% of the population declared that they have no religion [173] according to ecclesiastical information this share had grown to 20% by 2015. [176] Of the remaining people, around 340,000 were registered as members of various Muslim communities in 2001, mainly due to the influx from Turkey, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo. [173] The number of Muslims has doubled in 15 years to 700,000 in 2016. [177] About 180,000 are members of Orthodox Churches (mostly Serbs), about 21,000 people are active Jehovah's Witnesses [178] and about 8,100 are Jewish. [173]

According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010, [179]

  • 44% of Austrian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God."
  • 38% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force."
  • 12% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force."


Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states (Bundesländer) and partly to the federal government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen.

Pre-school education (called Kindergarten in German), free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant.

Primary education, or Volksschule, lasts for four years, starting at age six. The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as 15. It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being. The 3Rs (Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic) dominate lesson time, with less time allotted to project work than in the UK. Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is no streaming.

Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.

As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. The Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education (Höhere Technische Lehranstalt HTL = institution of higher technical education HAK = commercial academy HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business etc.). Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben").

It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.

The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently. A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. In 2001, an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. Since 2008, for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance). [180] When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of €20.20 is charged for the student union and insurance. [181]


Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music. Austria was the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr. and Johann Strauss, Jr. as well as members of the Second Viennese School such as Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, then an independent Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire, which later became part of Austria, and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna.

Vienna was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. 18th- and 19th-century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, and made Vienna the European capital of classical music. During the Baroque period, Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music.

Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute. Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. Austria's current national anthem, attributed to Mozart, was chosen after World War II to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn.

Austrian Herbert von Karajan was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the 1960s until his death. [182]

International pop super star Johann Hölzel, also known by his stage name Falco was born in Vienna, Austria 19 February 1957.

Conchita Wurst is also a renowned singer from the Austrian stock.

Art and architecture

Cinema and theatre

Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. Billy Wilder, Fritz Lang, Josef von Sternberg, and Fred Zinnemann originally came from the Austrian Empire before establishing themselves as internationally relevant filmmakers. Willi Forst, Ernst Marischka, and Franz Antel enriched the popular cinema in German-speaking countries. Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon (2010).

The first Austrian director to receive an Academy Award was Stefan Ruzowitzky. A number of Austrian actors also pursued international careers, among them Peter Lorre, Helmut Berger, Curd Jürgens, Senta Berger, Oskar Werner, and Klaus Maria Brandauer. Most notably, Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became international movie stars in Hollywood. Christoph Waltz rose to fame with his performances in Inglourious Basterds and Django Unchained, earning him the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 2010 and 2012. Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions. Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director.

Science and philosophy

Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Among them are Ludwig Boltzmann, Ernst Mach, Victor Franz Hess and Christian Doppler, prominent scientists in the 19th century. In the 20th century, contributions by Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the 1920s and 1930s. A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger, noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation.

In addition to physicists, Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. In addition to them, biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus were Austrians.

A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth, Clemens von Pirquet, and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th-century Vienna School of Medicine. Austria was home to Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler, founder of Individual psychology, psychologists Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl.

The Austrian School of Economics, which is prominent as one of the main competitive directions for economic theory, is related to Austrian economists Carl Menger, Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek. Other noteworthy Austrian-born émigrés include the management thinker Peter Drucker, sociologist Paul Felix Lazarsfeld and scientist Sir Gustav Nossal.


Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists. It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard, and Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke, Adalbert Stifter, Karl Kraus and children's author Eva Ibbotson.

Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Nobel prize winner Elfriede Jelinek, Peter Handke and Daniel Kehlmann.

Food and beverages

Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine ("Hofküche") delivered over centuries. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables. There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as "Apfelstrudel" filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and "Millirahmstrudel" (milk-cream strudel).

In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian, Czech, Polish, Jewish, Italian, Balkan and French cuisines, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe.

Typical Austrian dishes include Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen, potatoes, herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce. Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. The sugar block dispenser Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten. Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. With over 8 kg per year it has the sixth highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide. [183]

Beer is sold in 0.2 litre (a Pfiff), 0.3 litre (a Seidel, kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.5 litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe) measures. At festivals one litre Maß and two litre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. The most popular types of beer are lager (known as Märzen in Austria), naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer. At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available.

The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria, Burgenland, Styria and Vienna. The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines [184] and Zweigelt is the most widely planted red wine grape. [185]

In Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Styria and Carinthia, Most, a type of cider or perry, is widely produced.

A Schnapps of typically up to 60% alcohol or fruit brandy is drunk, which in Austria is made from a variety of fruits, for example apricots and rowanberries. The produce of small private schnapps distilleries, of which there are around 20,000 in Austria, is known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand.

Local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade. [ citation needed ] Red Bull, the highest-selling energy drink in the world, was introduced by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur.


Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria and is extremely valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country. [186] Similar sports such as snowboarding or ski-jumping are also widely popular. Austrian athletes such as Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Franz Klammer, Hermann Maier, Toni Sailer, Benjamin Raich, Marlies Schild & Marcel Hirscher are widely regarded as some of the greatest alpine skiers of all time, Armin Kogler, Andreas Felder, Ernst Vettori, Andreas Goldberger, Andreas Widhölzl, Thomas Morgenstern & Gregor Schlierenzauer as some of the greatest ski jumpers of all time. Bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck as well. [187]

A popular team sport in Austria is football, which is governed by the Austrian Football Association. [188] Austria was among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent placing 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup. However, recently Austrian football has not been internationally successful. It also co-hosted the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship with Switzerland. The national Austrian football league is the Austrian Bundesliga, which includes teams such as record-champions SK Rapid Wien, FK Austria Wien, Red Bull Salzburg and Sturm Graz.

Besides football, Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Austrian Hockey League for ice hockey, and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball. Horseback riding is also popular the famed Spanish Riding School of Vienna is located in Vienna.

Niki Lauda is a former Formula One driver who was three times F1 World Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984. He is currently the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors. Other known Austrian F1 drivers are for example Gerhard Berger and Jochen Rindt. Austria also hosts F1 races (Austrian Grand Prix) now held at Red Bull Ring, in the past also at Österreichring and Zeltweg Airfield.

Thomas Muster is a former tennis player and one of the greatest clay courters of all time. He won the 1995 French Open and in 1996 he was ranked number 1 in the ATP Ranking. Other well known Austrian tennis players include the 2020 US Open winner Dominic Thiem, Horst Skoff and Jürgen Melzer.

Sport played a significant role in developing national consciousness and boosting national self-confidence in the early years of the Second Republic after World War II, through events such as the Tour of Austria cycle race and through sporting successes such as the national football team's run to third at the 1954 World Cup and the performances of Toni Sailer and the rest of the "Kitzbühel Miracle Team" in the 1950s. [189] [190]

The Harvard Law Review — Glimpses of Its History as Seen by an Aficionado

Erwin N. Griswold, The Harvard Law Review — Glimpses of Its History as Seen by an Aficionado, in Harvard Law Review: Centennial Album i (1987).

In the beginning there was the Harvard Law School, not quite sixty years old. It was, in the 1880s, experiencing a rebirth and showing new signs of considerable vitality. By this time the school had developed a considerable alumni body, which spurred much innovative activity contributing to this new vitality. The alumni had particularly demonstrated their spirit in November 1886, in connection with the 250th anniversary of the founding of Harvard College, which was celebrated with considerable fanfare.

One of the Law School’s alumni was a young man of great ability and unbounded energy named Louis D. Brandeis, who had received his degree from the Law School in 1877. He was active in working with other alumni to bring about the establishment of the Harvard Law School Association at a meeting held in Cambridge on November 5, 1886, and he was then elected the first secretary of the new Association. Among the speakers at this meeting was Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., who had recently been appointed to the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. His well-known address at this meeting made a great impression on the students, as on the others who were in attendance. John H. Wigmore, then a student, later wrote that the celebration of the 250th anniversary “put pride into our hearts, and the conviction that the Harvard Law School had a message for the professional world.”

From the beginning. the School had encouraged law clubs in which groups of students gathered together for informal discussion of legal problems and formal argument of questions of law. In the anniversary setting of 1886, a group of eight third-year students formed a new law club, known as the Langdell Society, and out of this club the Harvard Law Review quickly developed. The idea of publishing a legal journal was not an original one. It was in the air, and no doubt would have taken shape sooner or later. But this was a remarkable group of students, and they felt moved to act because they would soon be leaving the Law School. They had seen a copy of the Columbia Jurist, which had been published for a few years at the Columbia Law School. The recently established Law Quarterly Review must also have been known in Cambridge at the time. In addition, students at the Albany Law School had published the Albany Law School Journal, which was established in 1875 but survived for only one year.

Other exciting changes were underway at the Law School at that time. The School had moved into its great new building, Austin Hall, in 1884, and it was developing rapidly under Dean Christopher Columbus Langdell’s leadership. One of the important innovations was the appointment to the faculty of several recent graduates of the Law School who lacked substantial experience in practice. The first of these young scholars was James Barr Ames of the Class of 1872. Ames was appointed Assistant Professor in 1873, and became a Professor of Law in 1877 at the age of thirty one. He later served as Dean of the Law School from 1895 to 1910. He was widely regarded as the scholar who perfected the case method of instruction, and he was greatly beloved by his students and admired by law teachers throughout the United States. Ames gave encouragement to the students in late 1886, and in early 1887 he contributed the first article in the first issue of the Review.

When the Review was founded in 1887, the Harvard Law School had about 200 students and five or six faculty members. The third-year class numbered no more than sixty-five or seventy students. Of them, fifteen were members of the original editorial board of the Law Review. What a group they were! J. McKelvey was most active among the founders, and he was the first Editor-in-Chief. Others on the original Board were Joseph H. Beale, Jr., who wrote an article on “Tickets” in the first issue, and Julian W. Mack—the business manager of the Review—who later served as a distinguished judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The Board also included John H. Wigmore, later Dean of the Northwestern Law School and the author of one of the great treatises on American law, and Bancroft G. Davis, Blewett H. Lee, and George R. Nutter, all later distinguished practitioners. Nutter eventually became a partner of Brandeis in the firm of Brandeis, Dunbar & Nutter, and his name is still carried by the present firm of Nutter, McClennan & Fish.

McKelvey, Mack, and Beale were clearly the moving spirits of the Review. As Beale later recalled, they “went to the faculty with their plan [and] they found differing degrees of warmth in the support offered but Ames approved without reserve, wrote the first leading article, and became the chief adviser and helper of the editors throughout his life.”

The masthead of the first issue looked much the same as it does now, except that the number of editors has increased enormously. In the first issue, the masthead page included a line which read “Published Monthly, during the Academic Year, by Harvard Law Students.” This has continued through the one hundred volumes with no substantial change. It now reads: “Published eight times during the academic year by Harvard law students.”One item on the first masthead page attracts attention today. It reads: “SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, $2.50 PER ANNUM …35¢ PER NUMBER.”

With the opening of the new school year in the fall of 1887, there was some change in the membership of the Board of Volume 1. New members included Homer H. Johnson, who later became a prominent lawyer in Cleveland, and Samuel Williston, who was on his way to becoming one of the School’s most distinguished professors.

Of course, financial support for the Review was a major problem confronting the founders of the journal. At Professor Ames’ suggestion, “they went to Brandeis for advice and for funds to finance it. His immediate response was a gift of money, but he also put them in touch with other members of the Boston Bar who could be interested in the idea.” McKelvey went to New York and sought support from alumni there. In this way, the students obtained about three hundred subscriptions for the first issue. Only three years after the founding, in 1890, Brandeis found a way to assure financial support for the Review. He “brought about the distribution of the Review, at the expense of the [newly-founded Harvard Law School] Association, to each of its members.”

Very early, the Review, probably under the advice of Brandeis, found it desirable to introduce an element of continuity into its operations. On April 15, 1889, the Harvard Law Review Fund was established, with James B. Ames, Louis D. Brandeis, and George R. Nutter as trustees. The Review, referred to as “a co-partnership for the publication of the Harvard Law Review, a magazine of law published in Cambridge, Massachusetts,” transferred $250 to these trustees and their successors “as a trust fund for the benefit of the said Harvard Law Review.” The trust agreement, and an accounting, were printed in 1912 at the time of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Dinner of the Review.

The next, and more or less final, stage in the organization of the Review was the incorporation of the Harvard Law Review Association in 1902. Under the charter of this corporation, there are two officers, the President and the Treasurer the President is elected by the members of the Editorial Board, and the President appoints the Treasurer. The charter makes the trustees of the Harvard Law Review Fund part of the corporate structure and allocates custody of the accumulated funds to the Graduate Treasurer. This organization has now continued for eighty-five years it seems to have stood the test of time.

The Fund’s accumulated surplus has been important on several occasions. It has provided capital for major reprinting projects, and it has been useful when defaults might have threatened the survival of the Review. Defaults were a particular danger during the two war time periods, when costs sharply increased and revenues were reduced.

It is not known when the Harvard Law School Association ended its direct support for the Review. It was probably early in the twentieth century. Since that time, the Review has always been self-supporting, in the sense that it pays its bills out of its revenues. Its bills, however, do not include any fees, salaries, or stipends, either for authors or for student editors, and the Review‘s space (now in Gannett House), including repairs, painting, heat and light, care of grounds, and snow removal, are provided by the Law School.

During the 1920s and 1930s, paid circulation of the Review stood at about 10,000 copies of each issue. It is now somewhat less, about 8000 copies. This reduction is no doubt largely due to the great increase in subscription price, which is now $32 per year. There are now fewer individual subscribers, and most copies go to libraries, including university libraries throughout the world, and law office libraries throughout the United States.

The early editors of the Review were apparently self-selected that is, when vacancies occurred at the close of the school year, they were filled by the remaining members of the Board. A considerable reorganization took place in 1902, when the size of the Board was increased from fifteen to thirty, and “[f]irst-year men were no longer elected.” In these earlier days, academic marks played a major role In the choice, but there was no fixed rule, and evidently there was occasionally some measure of favoritism and discrimination.

By the early 1920s, the Review had established a clear convention for selection. The President of the Review received from the Secretary’s office the rank list of students at the end of their first year, and the Review was required to follow the rank list in order, although the Review had discretion to decide where to stop on the list. This method enabled the editors to take account of ties in class rank, or to include one more person where the gap after him was considerable. It was clear, however, that there could be no omissions from the list above the cutoff point. Assuming that academic averages have some significance (and experience shows that they are reasonably accurate in measuring certain types of legal ability), this provided a remarkably nondiscriminatory method of selection of new Board members.

Until after World War II, the Board numbered about thirty-five members. This size was manageable and provided real work for nearly every member of the Board. In addition to the President and the Treasurer, there were for many years three other officers, the Note Editor, the Case Editor, and the Book Review Editor. Second-year editors generally wrote Recent Cases, and occasionally a few wrote Notes. Most Notes, however, were written by third-year members of the Board. The President took primary responsibility for the selection and editing of articles, but he often called on third-year members of the Board for assistance in this task.

Following World War II, the size of the Board gradually and steadily increased. The opening masthead of Volume 100 includes eighty-two names. The larger number of editors provides added laborers for the Review’s endeavors, but it probably also leaves the average member with less work to do than in years past. The growth in the size of the Board is, in large measure, a response to the greatly increased selectivity of admissions to the Law School. In the 1920s and early 1930s, about thirty percent of the members of the first-year class failed in their examinations and were not allowed to return to the School. The average academic standing of the seventy percent who did return was considerably less than the average academic standing today. Until 1936, the School accepted every applicant who came with a diploma from an “approved” college. In recent years, the School has had over 6000 applicants each year for the 550 places in the first-year class. Though admissions selection necessarily has some elements of chance, it is inevitable that the average potential of the student body is very much higher than it was fifty to sixty years ago or earlier. This development has produced great pressure for additional memberships on the Board. As the size of the Review has grown, various forms of affirmative action, and selection by a writing contest, have also been adopted. The writing competition was initiated by Volumes 82 and 83 in 1969, and affirmative action began under Volume 96 in 1982. Under all of the circumstances, these changes may have been inevitable. But there can be little doubt that some observers see a loss in the process, while others see a gain.

The first black member of the Review was Charles Hamilton Houston, LL.B. cum laude 1922, S.J.D. 1923, who served on Volume 35. The second black member was William Henry Hastie LL.B. cum laude 1930, a member of the Board of Volume 43, who later became Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Other black members of the Board have included William T. Coleman, Jr., J.D. magna cum laude 1943 (’46), later Secretary of Transportation, and current Harvard Law School Professors Christopher F. Edley, Jr. (Volume 90) and David B. Wilkins (Volume 93). As the Review enters its second century, it has just elected its first minority President, Raj Marphatia of Volume 101.

The first woman member of the Board was Priscilla Holmes, LL.B. 1955, who was on the Boards of Volumes 67 and 68. She was followed by Nancy Goldring, on the Board of Volume 69, by Nancy Boxley, on the Boards of Volumes 70 and 71, and by Ruth Bader Ginsburg on the Board of Volume 71. The first woman President was Susan R. Estrich, President of Volume 90, and now a Professor at the Harvard Law School. The second woman President was Carol S. Steiker, President of Volume 99.

In the first issue of the Review, the editors said that their objective was primarily “to set forth the work done in the school with which we are connected.” But, they added, “we are not without hopes that the Review may be serviceable to the profession at large.” The first issue included “Notes,” which were often literally “notes,” and cases from the moot courts, including the law clubs. It also included notes taken by students of classroom lectures at the Law School, and several pages of “Correspondence” from Washington, D.C. This Correspondence was signed “D,” but the identity of the author has not been discovered. The first issue also contained three pages of comments on Recent Cases and five pages of Book Reviews, including a reference to the American Digest, just published as part of the fledgling National Reporter system. This same format was followed in subsequent issues of the volume, though sometimes without book reviews.

The first “Lecture Notes” were written by Joseph H. Beale. His effort to get permission to publish notes of Dean Langdell’s lectures resulted in the series of articles by Langdell on A Brief Survey of Equity Jurisdiction. Thus, the Review quickly became a medium for publication of the scholarly work of the Harvard Law School faculty, and this has undoubtedly had very substantial influence in American law and American legal education. Recent commentators have recorded that:

A review of the [fifty year] Index to the Harvard Law Review discloses that Professor Ames contributed twenty-eight signed articles, Dean Langdell authored twenty-seven, Professor Thayer produced nineteen, and Professor Gray wrote twelve. Student editor, and later Harvard Professor, Joseph Beale, Jr. contributed an astonishing fifty-one articles. Another early student editor who became a Harvard law faculty member, Samuel Williston, was almost as productive he contributed thirty-four articles.

Professor Austin W. Scott published a total of thirty-one articles in the Review. The Review has continued to be a major vehicle for the publication of scholarly articles by faculty members from Harvard and other law schools.

Though the publication of scholarly articles became a major function of the Review, the publication of classroom lecture notes was soon abandoned. These notes continued through Volume 5, but on April 10, 1893, an alumnus wrote to Dean Langdell:

Complaints have been made to me . . . which I deem it proper to call to your attention.

I am told . . . that (some) able and zealous students . . . find it to their advantage not to attend the exercises, but instead merely to use the notes of students taken in former years.

It will doubtless be easy for the faculty to verify the correctness of these statements. If they are true it seems to me that radical changes are necessary.

The author of this letter was Louis D. Brandeis. The details of what happened are not known, but there were no lecture notes in Volume 6 or thereafter. However, lecture notes prepared by members of the Law Review Board were available for many years in manuscript or mimeographed form. For a long time, the availability of these notes was rather carefully confined to Law Review Board members. This practice led to complaints and to arrangements for making the notes more readily available to students generally, since their use by Law Review Board members only was regarded as unfair discrimination.

The work published in the Review has developed in other ways as well. Until the last few years, the Review continued to have significant discussion of Recent Cases, but these have now virtually disappeared. And it slowly developed much more substantial Notes, in which students made significant contributions to scholarly analysis and commentary. Until the end of World War II, the typical Note was six to ten pages long, dealing with a fairly narrow problem, but during the last half century, these Notes have become progressively longer and more ambitious, until they have become major discussions, often in new or developing areas, comparable to many of the leading articles. The typical Note is now twenty to twenty-five pages long. The Review has also occasionally published a long Note on Legislation.

In addition, the Review has undertaken two major annual projects in student work. The first of these is the Supreme Court Note and the second is the Note on Developments in the Law. Both of these have become substantial scholarly efforts and contributions. The Supreme Court Note grew out of the articles published in the Review by Felix Frankfurter and James M. Landis, which eventually became their classic book on The Business of the Supreme Court—printed, indeed, by use of the Law Review plates. This major work was supplemented for several years by articles written by Professor Frankfurter, first with James M. Landis, and then in collaboration with Henry M. Hart, Jr. After World War II, this task was taken over by the student members of the Review. It is a large task and a substantial accomplishment to prepare this Note, now running to 200 pages or more in each November Issue, preceded by a significant Foreword and Comment. The Developments section began at about the same time as the Supreme Court Note, and has become a major undertaking, dealing comprehensively with current and emerging legal problems. The most recent one, on Toxic Waste Litigation, devotes 200 pages to this important social, legal, and practical problem.

Perhaps the most serious change in recent years has been in the Book Review office. To my great regret, there are now only a relatively few book reviews in each Volume. For example, Volume 99 had only twelve book reviews in eight issues, plus a few Book Notes. The reviews that are published tend to be extremely long, and often quite wordy or tendentious. The service of the Review to its subscribers could be, I am sure, greatly improved by more and shorter book reviews. Meanwhile, the Book Review office has begun to publish lively “Commentaries,” each about fifteen pages long, on issues of current interest.

Another activity for which the Review has major responsibility is the form book, or “Bluebook,” formally known as A Uniform System of Citation. This publication goes back at least to the 1920s, when an “Instructions for Editorial Work” was prepared by student editors and put in the hands of the new members of the Review. In due course, this booklet developed and was revised other law reviews heard about it, and made suggestions for its improvement. This led to a meeting of the Presidents of the Harvard, Columbia, and University of Pennsylvania Law Reviews, and the Yale Law Journal. As a result of this meeting, the four journals now publish the Bluebook jointly and share the revenues but virtually all the editorial work is still done at Harvard, which earns the largest share of the income. The Bluebook has become a major publication, widely used in law offices throughout the country, as well as by law reviews and other legal publications. It is now in its Fourteenth Edition and on the whole has been a very useful publication. However, there is a tendency, especially among the young, to follow it slavishly. A form book can be very useful, and it should ordinarily be followed. However, it should not be followed when there is a good reason for not following it. The Bluebook might be even more useful if it were more generally understood that it should be used as a guide, but that there is still room for intelligent judgment when circumstances warrant it.

Perhaps the greatest thing about the Harvard Law Review is the fact that it has from the beginning depended on student initiative, and has been operated under student responsibility and is, for practical purposes, student controlled. The Centennial History of the Harvard Law School states that “[t]he Faculty were invited to take an active part in the management, but thought that the interests of the paper would be more advanced by their remaining in the background.” The source of the inner quotation is not disclosed. At any rate, the students moved ahead, with the active support of some faculty and alumni. Of course, there are occasional frictions. Feelings have sometimes been aroused because a faculty article was not published, or, more often, because editors made changes in articles —sometimes amounting to rewriting, sometimes needed. But the serious difficulties have been rare, and they have always been worked out without impairing the essential “autonomy” of the Review.

The autonomy of student control has survived several crises. One problem became public in 1953, when Jonathan W. Lubell of the Class of 1954, who had qualified for membership on the Board of the Review, declined to testify about his possible Communist ties before a Congressional committee by claiming the privilege of the fifth amendment. Prominent alumni, including the President of the Massachusetts Bar Association, demanded that Mr. Lubell be dismissed from the School. The matter was considered by the faculty, and, as would be expected, views were expressed on both sides. However, the faculty declined to separate Mr. Lubell from the School. The matter was also raised before the Harvard Law Review Board, which voted 16-8 to deny membership to Mr. Lubell. There was a great deal of discussion about this in the faculty, and elsewhere. The faculty concluded that this was a matter on which it should not undertake to interfere with the Review. Perhaps this decision to defer to the student editors was a result of the intensity of the previous faculty discussion, and the feeling that nothing would be gained by presenting much the same question in another form.

Nearly twenty-five years later, in 1978, the editors of the Review took it upon themselves to readdress this issue, without, of course, the atmosphere and background that were present in 1953. The editors of Volume 91 voted, by an undisclosed margin, that they “deeply regret[ted] the injustice Mr. Lubell suffered at that time,” and they resolved to reinstate him in “membership in the Harvard Law Review Association.” This action is surely understandable. Whether it is possible, though, to “rewrite history” may not be so clear. The days of 1953 were tense times for those who lived through them, and many facts and factors that seemed relevant to thoughtful people then may not be fully understood by those who come later to a less troubled scene.

Over the past decade, there have also been differences of opinion about the Review‘s decision to change the method of choosing members of its Board through some sort of affirmative action, and by employing a writing competition as well as, or for some candidates in lieu of, academic grades. These changes, too, have been difficult, but any problems encountered have been resolved by the student editors themselves, though not without concern on the part of many who hold the Review in high esteem.

The fact that the Review has been operated with student initiative and responsibility has contributed greatly to the education that it provides its members. It has, of course, been unfortunate that this educational opportunity has been available to only a relatively few students in the School. Because of this, when I was Dean I took steps to encourage the development of other serious and substantial periodicals in order to provide vehicles through which other students could have similar opportunities on a basis of choice, rather than through selection by academic grades or related competition. It was with this thought that the Harvard Journal on Legislation, the Harvard Journal of International Law, and the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review were founded. Other journals have since been started. The hope was that the establishment of these journals and of other activities, such as clinical legal education, would lead to a greater feeling of “equal opportunity” among the students. Although headway has been made, this objective still remains elusive.

At the beginning, space was found for the offices of the Review in Austin Hall, which had been opened only a year or two before the Review was established. The Review stayed there until after World War I, when Gannett House became available. Gannett House was “once the dwelling of Caleb Gannett, eighteenth century tutor and steward of the college,” and the house appears in the 1905-06 catalogue of the Law School “as a student dwelling.” It was about 1925 when Gannett House was converted to higher uses. Quarters were provided on the ground floor for the Secretary of the Law School, and the Law Review was assigned the second floor. At that time, the basement was only roughly finished, and the attic was hardly finished at all. In later years, the basement also provided usable space, and the attic was developed into several adequately finished rooms. In due course, about 1929, the Secretary’s office was moved to the enlarged Langdell Hall, and the Legal Aid Bureau (and for a while the Voluntary Defenders) were established downstairs. Until about 1938, Gannett House faced to the south, towards Harvard Square, parallel with Massachusetts Avenue. In that year, the Littauer Center was built for the Graduate School of Public Administration. In order to build Littauer, the old Hemenway Gymnasium, built about 1885, was torn down. Hemenway had been a University building, to which the Law School had no right of access. A new Hemenway was then built between Gannett House and Walter Hastings Hall, a student dormitory. In order to provide the needed space, Gannett House was rotated ninety degrees, so that it now faces more or less to the east, with its back entrance on Massachusetts Avenue. It remains a rather stately building, in the Greek style. Gannett House is perhaps the most intensely used building in the Law School. It was crowded when I knew it with thirty-five members of the Law Review Board. How the present administration operates, with a Board of more than eighty members, has long been beyond my comprehension.

Over the past century, the Review has regularly been published eight times a year. In the original Volume, the first issue was dated April 15, 1887, and No. 8 was issued on March 15, 1888. In the next several volumes, No. 8 moved into April and then into May. The change to the present schedule, with eight issues starting in November and ending in June, began with Volume 16, in 1902, and, except for war years, it has continued on this schedule ever since.

By and large, the Review has been published on time, though there have been some defaults. When I was Dean of the Law School, I took the position that if the Review was to be published under student responsibility, the students had an obligation to do it on a truly professional basis, which meant that they should plan and carry out the work so that the Review appeared on schedule, as regularly as other first-class journals, like the Atlantic Monthly, or any other standard periodical. In this objective, I received the full cooperation of every Law Review President and Board. Every month, from November through June of each of the twenty-one years of my tenure as Dean, there appeared on my desk by the 10th of the month the new issue of the Law Review. Sometimes, I could see that the issue was hand-made—that is, it had not gone through the bindery in regular form, but had been put together from the folded sheets and wrapped in the cover. But I never raised any objection to that method. The students always got the Review to me on time, and I am proud of them. The issue was always mailed by the 20th of the month, and received by most of the subscribers before the month ended. That is as it should be, and I always gave much credit to the officers and members of the several Boards for this, as well as for the high caliber of their work.

As I have said, there have been some defaults in recent years. Delays are unfair to succeeding Boards, who have to work doubly hard to catch up, and they are also some reflection on the Review and on the Harvard Law School, which ought always to do work of first quality in all respects.

One of the difficulties in getting out the June issue each year is the production of the Index. This cannot be prepared until the June issue is in page proof form, which often does not occur until the time of the final examinations for Law Review Board members. For this reason, the Review has sometimes sought outside help in making the Index. For several years, when I first returned to the Law School as a member of the faculty, I wrote the Index of the Review. I tried to improve it in various ways, including the introduction of a little rather strained humor. For example, I changed the heading “Fair Trade Acts” to “ Fair Trade Acts, so-called.” My recollection is that I was paid $250 for making the Index. That was very welcome at the time.

In addition to the Annual Index, the Review has periodically published cumulative indexes. The Fifty Year Index was published after the first half century and was extraordinarily useful. It was followed by an index covering Volumes 51 through 75, and one covering Volumes 75 through 85. It is now fifteen years since there has been any sort of cumulation. People are waiting with bated breath for the Centennial Index. There is no doubt that it will be widely used, and much appreciated, as were its predecessors. The Harvard Law Review contains many treasures, and the Index is the key to finding them.

The method of printing the Review has gone through changes with the times. Originally, it was printed from type, probably hand-set. Once the Review had established itself, demand began to grow for copies of back issues. The editors then decided to prepare stereotype plates, which were made for many years. With these plates, it was possible to run off reprints from time to time, as they were needed. The plates were used until about 1960, when lithographic reproduction became feasible. In more recent years, the Review has gone in for electronic transmission and reproduction. The offices of the Review at Gannett House are now filled with word processing equipment, which is bewildering to those who were brought up in an earlier age. This equipment communicates with Nebraska, where the Review is now printed.

The Review has had 109 Editors-in-Chief and Presidents during its first century. This includes the two editors in Volume 1, since that volume appeared in two academic years, and sixteen Presidents for the eight volumes from Volume 55 through 62, covering the War and post-War years, 1942—49, when the School operated throughout the year, with three “semesters” each year.

John J. McKelvey, one of the founders, and the first Editor-in-Chief of Volume 1, attended and spoke at the Fiftieth Anniversary Dinner in 1937, which I and many others attended. I have also known most of the Editors-in-Chief and Presidents who succeeded him, including George R. Nutter, the Editor-in-Chief of Volume 2, and Robert G. Dodge, the Editor-in-Chief of Volume 10. From Joseph P. Cotton, Jr., President of Volume 13, down to the present, I have known virtually every President. Edward S. Thurston, President of Volume 14, and Sayre MacNeil, President of Volume 24, taught at the Harvard Law School. Thomas W. Swan, President of Volume 16, was Dean of the Yale Law School, and a distinguished judge of the Second Circuit. Charles E. Hughes, Jr., President of Volume 25, was the Solicitor General who hired me as a member of his staff in the fall of 1929. Over the past more than sixty years, most of the Presidents have been my personal friends.

Some people are concerned that a major legal periodical in the United States is edited and managed by students. It is an unusual situation, but it started that way, and it developed mightily from its own strength. Its contributions to our law and to legal education have far exceeded the hopes and expectations of the founders. They had a remarkable idea, and they started on a sound basis. The Review has proved itself over a century of explosive growth in the law. It has earned an accolade. Let it be: “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.” Now we may see if the editors will let me use such crude and ungrammatical language!

Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC09640.108 Author/Creator: Langston Hughes Review Place Written: Providence, Rhode Island Type: Pamphlet Date: 1985 Pagination: 48 p. 22.9 x 15.2 cm.

One edition of "The Langston Hughes Review" published in Fall 1985. Volume IV, Number 2 contains articles related to Hughes's work in poetry and translation. Also includes an essay commemorating Henry Lee Moon, the former public relations director of NAACP.

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