Oyo Empire

Oyo Empire


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The Oyo Empire flourished from the 17th to 19th century CE in what is today southwest Nigeria. The Oyo forged an empire thanks to their formidable cavalry units and so came to dominate other Yoruba peoples of the region. The Oyo Empire, with its capital at Old Oyo near the Niger River, prospered on regional trade and became a central facilitator in moving slaves from Africa's interior to the coast and waiting European sailing ships. The trade in humanity was so large that this part of Africa became known simply as the 'Slave Coast'. The Oyo eventually succumbed to the expanding Islamic states to the north, and by the mid-19th century CE, the empire had disintegrated into small rival chiefdoms.

Origins

The Oyo Kingdom, as with other states of the Yoruba people in the southern coastal area of West Africa (modern Nigeria), claimed descent from an exiled king of Ife (11-15th century CE). Although archaeology has yet to discover concrete connections between the various successive states of what is today Nigeria, oral traditions, such as those in the Kingdom of Benin (13-19th century CE), located just to the east of Oyo, tell of a king of Ife who not only sent a prince to rule other areas of the region but also sent a master craftsman to spread his sculptural skills. In oral traditions, the founder of the Oyo state was one Oranmiyan (aka Oranyan), son of Oduduwa, the founder of Ife. An impressive carved granite column from Ife stands 5.5 metres (18 ft.) tall and is known as the Opa Oranmiyan or 'staff of Oranmiyan'. Oyo art in general displays a striking resemblance to that of Ife and Benin. Through this process of cultural transfer, the Oyo inherited a long cultural tradition which stretched right back the Nok Culture of ancient Nigeria (5th century BCE to 2nd century CE).

The Oyo provided the necessary command infrastructures to organize the movement of slaves from Africa's interior to the coast.

The principal settlements of the Oyo were in and around Ife, the old capital of the Ife Kingdom, Old Oyo (aka Oyo Ile or Katunga), Kusu and Igboho. From 1450 CE, the region prospered thanks to trade with such northern states as Hausaland (15-19th century CE) and, to the south, with Portuguese sailing vessels that plied the coast of West Africa. By the late 16th century CE, the Portuguese were joined by the British, French, and Dutch, eager to obtain a slice of the lucrative regional trade.

Slave Trade

The Oyo territory came to encompass a real mix of environments with portions of rainforest, dry forest, savannah, and mangrove swamp. The Oyo benefitted most from the savannah regions, which facilitated easy movement and trade contacts with neighbouring states. As with the states which prospered throughout the second millennium CE in the region, the Oyo Empire exploited local resources such as okra, yams, dates, palm oil, and fish. Iron-smelting technology permitted the production of iron tools and weapons while traded goods included kola nuts, pepper, ivory, gold and slaves. Imported goods included horses and goods from the Mediterranean which had crossed the Sahara via camel caravans and then travelled southwards across the savannah belt and down the River Niger.

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Oyo & Dahomey were at war between 1726 & 1730 CE, a conflict which the Oyo Empire eventually won.

Expansion

Although the Oyo did not form many large towns of note, rulers were able to forge a small empire thanks to their fearsome cavalry and archers - both a result of their commercial tentacles reaching as far north as the trans-Saharan trade routes. Consequently, the kingdom expanded to include areas of the southwest and, in the savannah to the north, it acquired territory from its neighbours the Borgu and Nupe states. The Nupe did conquer Old Oyo around 1535 CE and held onto it until the Oyo kings regained it around 1610 CE. Both the Owu in the south and Ede to the southeast became vassal states of Oyo as the empire reached its peak from the first half of the 17th century CE, eventually conquering 13 rival kingdoms.

The motivation for this territorial expansion was to gain control of the lucrative regional trade routes along which salt, gold, and slaves were transported. This was particularly true for the coastal areas which had a longstanding trade relationship with European sailing vessels. The Oyo did not have everything their own way, however, as groups like the Ijesha inhabited forested areas where the Oyo cavalry could not be used effectively and the dangerous tsetse fly was present. The same was true for the Ekiti who dwelt in the hills bordering the far northern stretch of Oyo lands. The Kingdom of Benin in the east was another formidable block to Oyo ambitions. Interestingly, the Oyo also took cultural ideas, not just land from its rivals, notably adopting the prominent ancestor worship of the Nupe into their own religious practices.

Naturally, other regional powers were also anxious to control trade routes, notably the Kingdom of Dahomey to the west. Oyo and Dahomey were at war between 1726 and 1730 CE, a conflict which the Oyo Empire eventually won. After 1730 CE, Dahomey consequently accepted the political authority of Oyo and the latter claimed some of the Dahomey coastal conquests, giving the empire its own direct access to the sea via the tributary state of Ajashe (aka Porto Novo).

Decline

The Oyo Empire might have achieved regional dominance but a much bigger power was slowly moving itself into position far to the north. The 18th century CE had already seen an expansion of the northern Islamic states who had embarked on a holy war to spread their faith. These invasions, reaching ever further south by the 19th century CE, caused severe disruption to Oyo's trade and highlighted the inherent weakness in the Oyo political setup. The Oyo king, the Alafin, had already been in conflict with both the state's ruling council of elders, the Oyo Mesi, and the military leader, the bashorun (who also led the Oyo Mesi). There was constant friction throughout the 18th century CE between those who wanted peaceful trade and those who favoured military expansion. This situation and the loose control of vassal states meant that the Oyo Empire was really a house of cards awaiting the winds of change.

The storm duly came in the 1820s CE in the form of the militant Muslim Fulani and, ultimately, the northern part of the Oyo Empire, Ilorin, was conquered to become the Fulani Emirate of Ilorin, an outpost of the great Sokoto Caliphate (1804-1903 CE). The result of this loss was a domino effect that saw the Oyo Empire breaking up into smaller states which led to further competition and warfare between them. The consequence of this political decline for the Yoruba peoples was catastrophic as they had largely avoided being made slaves up to that point but were now by far the majority of those captured and shipped to the Americas until the slave trade ended here in the 1850s CE. The area of what is today the state of Nigeria became a British colony in 1861 CE, and in 1900 CE the protectorates of North and South Nigeria were formed. The two protectorates joined in 1914 CE, became a federation in 1954 CE, and finally gained independence in 1960 CE.


Nigerian History in Pre-colonial times – Oyo empire

Just like other ethnic groups in Nigeria, the history of the Yoruba people is still a subject of controversy. There are, however, several versions of the origins of the people. The most contentious is the one that traces the origin to the “East”. This is basically due to the similarities between the cultures of the Yoruba and the Egyptians, in terms of religious observances, work of arts, burial and other traditional practices. In this regard, it is believed that the Yoruba probably migrated from Egypt to their present location at about 2000-1000 B.C. This version was popularized by Rev. Samuel Johnson in his book, History of the Yoruba (1950). According to him, the Yoruba originally came from the North-Eastern area of Africa (variously supposed to be Egypt, Yemen, Ancient Meroe and Arabia). After a journey that took them several years, they finally settled in Ile-Ife. In the course of the journey, they founded a number of colonies one of which was Gogobir (Gobir) in present Northern Nigeria. The party that eventually got to Ile-Ife was led by Oduduwa who eventually established a flourishing kingdom at Ife and subsequently sent his sons and grandsons to find other Yoruba kingdoms. According to Johnson “that the Yorubas came originally from the east, there cannot be the slightest doubt, as their habits manner and customs etc all go to prove. With them the east is Mecca and Mecca is the east. Having strong affinities with the East, and Mecca is the east looming so large in their imagination, everything that comes from the east, with them, comes from Mecca and hence it is natural to represent themselves as having hailed originally from that city”. Historians and other scholars have since questioned this claim which they believe represents a version of the now-discredited Hamitic hypothesis.


Oyo's 8-year-old Journey is a Quintessential Indian Legend in the Book of Business World Stories (Infographic)

The intention of this timeline is not to applaud Oyo for its success. Enough has been said and done. The real motive of this article that traces the journey of Oyo is to look in wonder at its meteoric rise, in an exceedingly short span of time, from being a hotel-chain start-up pursued by an 18-year-old college dropout to becoming an Asian obsession and gradually make its way into the international market.

2011- Ritesh Agarwal, an 18-year-old college dropout, seemed to harbour dreams of entrepreneurship which compelled him to take the plunge with his first start-up Oravel. Oravel enabled listing and budget accommodation of hotel rooms and it, later on, got converted to become Oyo rooms.

2013- Agarwal was also selected for Thiel Fellowship, a 2-year-old program started by the founder of Paypal which gave him funding of $100,000 to pursue and make real the idea of his start-up. Oyo was launched in Gurgaon.

2014- In August of this year, Oyo received its first Series A funding.

Becoming the Face of Indian Start-ups

2015- In March of this year, Oyo received funding of a whopping amount of $25 million from its investors namely Lightspeed India, Seqoiua and others.

April 2015- Oyo app was launched. The mobile app was a catalyst in writing the success story of this hotel chain start-up that was to follow. It is a user-friendly app that helps customers to book rooms directly. Oyo, by now had expanded to Kolkata, Mumbai, Goa, Bangalore and was spreading at a massive pace. It has almost come up to 2000 hotels, 20,000 rooms and 100 cities in India.

July 2015- Oyo bagged $100 million in Series C Round of funding from Japanese investor SoftBank. This year proved to be a financially fulfilling year. Oyo now had the backing of one of the most prominent and powerful investors in the world.

2016- In January, first month of the year itself, the hotel chain hit the 1 million check-ins mark and also made an advent outside India into the Asia Pacific market, beginning with Malaysia.

2017- Continuing its expansion aspiration, it launched a business in Nepal. Nepal and Malaysia was just a hint of the monstrous development that was to follow.

Conquering the Asian Territory and Stepping into the International Markets

2018- This is the year that marked the establishment of the Oyo empire in Asia-Pacific and kick-started international proliferation by establishing operations in UK, UAE, Dubai, China, Singapore and Indonesia. It also became a unicorn in September when it raised funding of $800 million from SoftBank and already had raised $200 million from its existing investors.

2019- With the backing of Greenoaks, Sequoia India, Lightspeed India, Hero enterprise and China Lodging Group as its solid group of investors, Oyo is not far from becoming a global success story, perhaps to some extent it has. Today it has more than 330,000 rooms in 500 cities globally. And Agarwal, still young and who has a long way ahead plans to make it the world&rsquos largest oldest chain by 2023!


Legends of Africa: The Oyo Empire (c. 1400 – 1835)

The Oyo Empire of present-day Nigeria was a West African empire (c. 1400-1835). The empire arose at the turn of the 14th century from a kingdom founded by the Yoruba and grew to become one of the largest West African states encountered by colonial explorers. It climbed to the top due to trade resources and the strength of a magnificent cavalry.

From the mid-17th to the late 18th century, the Oyo Empire was the most politically powerful state in the region, holding control not only over other Yoruba kingdoms in modern-day Nigeria, Benin, and Togo, but also over other African kingdoms, most notably the Fon Dahomey (in present-day Benin).

Oranyan (also renowned as Oranmiyan), the youngest prince of the Yoruba Kingdom of Ile-Ife, is said to be the legendary father of the Oyo Empire. Oranyan and his brother planned to start a punitive raid on their northern neighbors for offending their father, Oba Oduduwa, the first of Ife’s Oonis.

The brothers clashed on the way to the battle, and the army broke up. The force of Oranyan was too small to carry out a successful operation, so he drifted along the southern shore until he reached Bussa. There, he was entertained by the local ruler, who presented him with a big snake with a magical charm attached to its throat. The chief ordered Oranyan to follow the snake before it came to a halt and vanished into the ground after seven days.

Oranyan followed the instructions and founded Oyo where the serpent stopped. The place is remembered as Ajaka. Oranyan established Oyo as his new kingdom and became the first “oba” (Yoruba for “king” or “ruler”) with the title of “Alaafin of Oyo” (Alaafin means “owner of the palace”).

Oba Ajaka, Alaafin of Oyo, succeeded Oranyan, the first oba of Oyo. Ajaka was deposed because he was seen as lacking Yoruba military virtues and allowing too much liberty for his sub-chiefs. Ajaka’s brother, Jakuta, was then given leadership, and he was later deified as the deity Shango.

After Shango’s death, Ajaka was restored. Thoroughly more war-like and authoritarian, Ajaka returned to the throne. His successor, Kori, managed to occupy the whole of what would be referred to as metropolitan Oyo by later historians.

His capital, Oyo-Ile (also known as Katunga, Old Oyo, or Oyo-oro), was the heart of Metropolitan Oyo. The ‘afin’, or palace of the Oba, and its market were the two most important institutions in Oyo-Ile. The palace was situated in the heart of the city, close to the Oba’s market, known as ‘Oja-oba.’

A tall earthen wall with 17 gates surrounded the city for protection. The importance of the king in Oyo was symbolized by the two large structures (the palace and the Oja Oba).


Oyo Empire’s Trade and Geography

The empire covered an area north of Lagos in an ideal geographic location between the Volta and Niger Rivers. Due to this location, the empire was an important trade center.

Prior to the Berlin Conference (1884 -1885 CE) which led to the creation of imposed boundaries, the Yoruba speaking people lived in an area that stretched between the rivers Niger in Nigeria and Mono in Togo.

The land was good for agricultural cultivation. Dotting this vast land were hills, valleys, mountains, and low flat plateaus. Natural resources existed in large quantities, and the weather was divided between dry and wet seasons. Due to these geographical and topographical features, farming was an important occupation for the Yoruba people.

The Yoruba were also textile makers, weavers, blacksmiths, and enjoyed hunting as a sport and for food.

The Yoruba were active participants in the Trans-Saharan and Trans-Atlantic trade in which goods and ideas were exchanged. This led to exponential growth and development which allowed the Oyo empire to capitalize on its influence and create an empire with a complex democracy and intimidating army.


Oyo Empire & the Alaafin. Traditions of an Ancient Yoruba Kingdom

The presence of the ancient and powerful Kingdom (and later Empire) of Oyo under the direction of the Alaafin of Oyo in the geographical zone now described as Southwestern Nigeria was one of the most significant characteristics of Yorubaland.

The role and scope of Oyo’s impact in establishing a Yoruba identity and consciousness among the Yoruba has continued to resonate through generations and boundaries.

It also became the basis for a global understanding of the capacity of the black race to construct an enduring political and social arrangement.

The role that the Alaafin played in this has been extremely remarkable. The Yoruba who today are found in the Southwestern part of Nigeria, the Republics of Benin and Togo, Brazil, Cuba, Trinidad and other places in the Caribbean have continued to imagine the glory and renown of the empire and the consciousness created by the Kingdom of Oyo and its Alaafins.

Old Oyo Empire Palace

Oyo has continued to live on in the lives, arts and the socio-cultural, economic and political arrangements prevalent among the Yoruba people, their neighbours and the African Diaspora.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Oyo was the dominant political power in Yorubaland and beyond. It also became a major centre for exchanging goods from the forest areas and the coast. The Alaafin was the master of the realm spreading from the Savannah and as far afield as modern Benin and Togo Republics in the West African sub-region.

Oyo also gave a major identity to Yorubaland. The name Yoruba was initially used for the Oyo speaking people, their empire and dialect until the 19th century when European explorers applied the name widely to other Yoruba sub-groups. Thus, until the collapse of the Oyo empire in the early 19th century, its dominance and commercial links with different parts of the world provided the basis for stability that protected Yorubaland from aggression or untoward experiences.

The role, position, and relevance of the Alaafins in the colonial and postcolonial arrangement have equally proved remarkable in nation-building and human understanding.


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Yoruba and Hausa are from Kemet, east africa. The Bible is fake. Oduduwa is royal blood of Kemet who lead his people in west africa because kemet had fallen to invasion, drought and social decay. Oduduwa lean and tall like most east africans. So was his son Akanbi and his son, Oranmiyan was 7 feet tall. Living in West Africa Yoruba became short and fat.

Oranmiyan was a great warrior and fighter who was the true heir of the small kingdom of Ile Ife and surrounding towns. He set to expand his empire and created Oyo Empire. How would he return to Ife if Oranmiyan was now emperor? So upon his death did Oranmiyan return to his origins to be honored and buried.

The Ooni was a chief and keeper of the city. The Ooni had no army to rule anything. The Bashorun is head of the army of Oyo Empire and head of the Oyo Mesi. The Alaafin is God on Earth and the Oyo Mesi bow to him.

The Ogboni initiate all kings but no king initiate Ogboni. The Ogboni are the real rulers of the land. and can check the Alaafins power and the Oyo Mesi. Ogboni hold judicial power over the Oyo Oyo Empire. This is how come people fear Ogboni. The head of Ogboni is an Oba whose title is hereditary. His bloodline goes back to the pharoah of Kemet. The head of Ogboni is Obatala and the baba of Sango, the Alaafin. The elders run Africa everywhere in Africa. Ancient and hidden orders rule the continent.

The women are the real origin of the bloodlines. Instead of men arguing over who has the most power remember it was your mother who gave you your throne. There is always one man and three women at the least. There are more women in power than men. The many wives of chiefs and obas. The women allow the men to rule but Oya is the most powerful Irunmole and head of all women. Oya is the secret to Sangos power. Dont forget it. Yemaya bloodline is real also and some queens hold ancient titles of authority over men. Ase.

Yoruba and Hausa are from Kemet, east africa. The Bible is fake. Oduduwa is royal blood of Kemet who lead his people in west africa because kemet had fallen to invasion, drought and social decay. Oduduwa lean and tall like most east africans. So was his son Akanbi and his son, Oranmiyan was 7 feet tall. Living in West Africa Yoruba became short and fat.

Oranmiyan was a great warrior and fighter who was the true heir of the small kingdom of Ile Ife and surrounding towns. He set to expand his empire and created Oyo Empire. How would he return to Ife if Oranmiyan was now emperor? So upon his death did Oranmiyan return to his origins to be honored and buried.

The Ooni was a chief and keeper of the city. The Ooni had no army to rule anything. The Bashorun is head of the army of Oyo Empire and head of the Oyo Mesi. The Alaafin is God on Earth and the Oyo Mesi bow to him.

The Ogboni initiate all kings but no king initiate Ogboni. The Ogboni are the real rulers of the land. and can check the Alaafins power and the Oyo Mesi. Ogboni hold judicial power over the Oyo Oyo Empire. This is how come people fear Ogboni. The head of Ogboni is an Oba whose title is hereditary. His bloodline goes back to the pharoah of Kemet. The head of Ogboni is Obatala and the baba of Sango, the Alaafin. The elders run Africa everywhere in Africa. Ancient and hidden orders rule the continent.

The women are the real origin of the bloodlines. Instead of men arguing over who has the most power remember it was your mother who gave you your throne. There is always one man and three women at the least. There are more women in power than men. The many wives of chiefs and obas. The women allow the men to rule but Oya is the most powerful Irunmole and head of all women. Oya is the secret to Sangos power. Dont forget it. Yemaya bloodline is real also and some queens hold ancient titles of authority over men. Ase.

Yoruba and Hausa are from Kemet, east africa. The Bible is fake. Oduduwa is royal blood of Kemet who lead his people in west africa because kemet had fallen to invasion, drought and social decay. Oduduwa lean and tall like most east africans. So was his son Akanbi and his son, Oranmiyan was 7 feet tall. Living in West Africa Yoruba became short and fat.

Oranmiyan was a great warrior and fighter who was the true heir of the small kingdom of Ile Ife and surrounding towns. He set to expand his empire and created Oyo Empire. How would he return to Ife if Oranmiyan was now emperor? So upon his death did Oranmiyan return to his origins to be honored and buried.

The Ooni was a chief and keeper of the city. The Ooni had no army to rule anything. The Bashorun is head of the army of Oyo Empire and head of the Oyo Mesi. The Alaafin is God on Earth and the Oyo Mesi bow to him.

The Ogboni initiate all kings but no king initiate Ogboni. The Ogboni are the real rulers of the land. and can check the Alaafins power and the Oyo Mesi. Ogboni hold judicial power over the Oyo Oyo Empire. This is how come people fear Ogboni. The head of Ogboni is an Oba whose title is hereditary. His bloodline goes back to the pharoah of Kemet. The head of Ogboni is Obatala and the baba of Sango, the Alaafin. The elders run Africa everywhere in Africa. Ancient and hidden orders rule the continent.

The women are the real origin of the bloodlines. Instead of men arguing over who has the most power remember it was your mother who gave you your throne. There is always one man and three women at the least. There are more women in power than men. The many wives of chiefs and obas. The women allow the men to rule but Oya is the most powerful Irunmole and head of all women. Oya is the secret to Sangos power. Dont forget it. Yemaya bloodline is real also and some queens hold ancient titles of authority over men. Ase.

Yoruba and Hausa are from Kemet, east africa. The Bible is fake. Oduduwa is royal blood of Kemet who lead his people in west africa because kemet had fallen to invasion, drought and social decay. Oduduwa lean and tall like most east africans. So was his son Akanbi and his son, Oranmiyan was 7 feet tall. Living in West Africa Yoruba became short and fat.

Oranmiyan was a great warrior and fighter who was the true heir of the small kingdom of Ile Ife and surrounding towns. He set to expand his empire and created Oyo Empire. How would he return to Ife if Oranmiyan was now emperor? So upon his death did Oranmiyan return to his origins to be honored and buried.

The Ooni was a chief and keeper of the city. The Ooni had no army to rule anything. The Bashorun is head of the army of Oyo Empire and head of the Oyo Mesi. The Alaafin is God on Earth and the Oyo Mesi bow to him.

The Ogboni initiate all kings but no king initiate Ogboni. The Ogboni are the real rulers of the land. and can check the Alaafins power and the Oyo Mesi. Ogboni hold judicial power over the Oyo Oyo Empire. This is how come people fear Ogboni. The head of Ogboni is an Oba whose title is hereditary. His bloodline goes back to the pharoah of Kemet. The head of Ogboni is Obatala and the baba of Sango, the Alaafin. The elders run Africa everywhere in Africa. Ancient and hidden orders rule the continent.

The women are the real origin of the bloodlines. Instead of men arguing over who has the most power remember it was your mother who gave you your throne. There is always one man and three women at the least. There are more women in power than men. The many wives of chiefs and obas. The women allow the men to rule but Oya is the most powerful Irunmole and head of all women. Oya is the secret to Sangos power. Dont forget it. Yemaya bloodline is real also and some queens hold ancient titles of authority over men. Ase.

You are correct Baba Sango bows to no one. I understand that in the old days of Oyo Empire after the Alaafin was chosen his mother committed ritual suicide. This is because the Alaafin can't be seen bowing to anyone including his mother. As sons are always partial to their mothers. Its a brilliant tradition because the Alaafin is never comprised his only loyalty is to the Irunmole, the Elders and his children. The people have a right to reject his rule and the Bashorun can have the Alaafin dethroned. It has checks and balances. The system of Oyo Empire, even the name Yoruba, means, "Oyo" and "Oba" subjects of the Oba of Oyo. All Yoruba people worldwide, even those lost in slavery, Baba Sango is your King.

Yet we must respect the women and remember it is the mothers by which men got their thrones. Respect Yemaya, Oba, Osun, and Oya! Respect Ayelala! Respect all the great Queen Mothers who ever lived and are living!

Mami Wata are not part of the Yoruba pantheon of Orishas (i.e., Yemoja, Oshun etc.,), nor are their initiation ceremonies or means by which they are identified the same. The history of the priesthood of Mama Wata is overwhelmingly matriarchal, meaning that the Mami Watas are a part of the old African matriarchal, sacerdotal religious systems that once ruled and denominated Africa and many parts of the ancient world for thousands of years.

People argue over nonsense in Yorubaland about who is the ruler of the Yorubas. Baba Sango is the ruler of all the Yoruba people. Baba Sango's blood goes back to the beginning of all African royalty. Men become Kings and chiefs in some places based upon respect. Other places you have to be of noble blood to be eligible for Chiefdom or King. But to be head of an empire, to be considered a God on Earth, you have to be of royal blood. Baba Sango is a first class ruler, meaning that on both sides of his family, his mothers side, and his father's side, is a member of royalty. There are two royal houses in Oyo is where the candidates are choosen. All are first class royalty, their mothers and fathers are royalty.

If this is so then it would mean in alot of places in Africa royal family bloodlines can go back even further than let's say Ile Ife? Oduduwa was of royal blood and his father and mother would have been also. This would be the same for Obatala, Oba, Osun and Oya! Ogun, Esu, Yemaya, and other Irunmole who incarnated here and were royalty. The bloodline is of the mother the most important, because daddies maybe, mamas baby, you always know who the mother is. This is how the bloodline is maintained for eternity through the mother. The bloodline of the Ooni, respect to him, goes back to a slave woman, a commoner, or noble, but she was not royalty. The bloodline of royalty is maintained for eternity via the mother. The Mother Goddess is real. Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo lived in Yorubaland and she was a descendant of royalty from East Africa. As I've said, Kemet was the capital of Africa, when it began to fall, many princes left, Oduduwa was one of them. The ancestors migrated to the "Niger" "Area", or Nigeria, because the waters. You need only 4 things for a great civilization, Sun, fertile land, vegetation and water. But I digress.

The Hebrew texts are all lies, the Bible all lies, the Quran mostly lies based upon the Bible, yet Muhammad was real. Jesus doesn't exist.

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Keep holding your breath and you'll end up a skeleton.

No one has ever achieved enlightenment with fancy language, which are brainwashing spells, rhetoric and argument. But dirty Chistians have made it your trademark. If Christ ever existed, which is a lie, but if he is love, then how come Christian nations and kingdoms attack, enslave and colonize Africa? How come Christians are so dirty and corrupt? Condoming Sodomy and marrying Gays. Pastors live off the people lavishly while populations of them starve? Pastors are Freemasons but are preaching Christ while worshipping Osiris and Lucifer at the lodge? To me who is Illuminati? Its dirty Christians, Muslims, and Jews not traditional African faith. We take no part in the worldwide corruption that originates in Rome the capital of Christdom Illuminati. Ase.

Christians didn't colonise Africa but the people who came for spoils and greed. Read about Jesus, you will find his teaching against War and oppression .These were his core teachings and in him I see the light that thought me to think twice before I react negatively though at times I loose control like every other wise ones but in all, I find my excesses curtailed.

I don't preach but I try as much as possible to expose people to the experience I came across his wisdom,whose trait exceed ordinary, whose name opens doors of blessing and opportunities. I likened the ISIS to the Crusaders of the ancient times whose goal differed from the script of Jesus Christ but went out against conquest and subjugation of many people for selfish reasons. The British didn't give us Christianity but Samuel Ajayi crowther, Samuel Johnson, etc gave us Christianity because the mentioned and unmentioned Yoruba returned us back to God. The Crusaders cannot face the conjuring of words ( Ashé/Ofo etc) of the Yoruba nation but only with guns and it was only Jesus name that supersede Ashé/Ofo/Ogede or egede because, there's no need anymore for bloodletting to acquire but being HOLY in the way JESUS designed it and you and I can command words and it manifest into BEING.

Why did the British and crusaders use gun if they believed God reside with them? God, don't use guns but command and it comes into effect. So, slavery came majorly against Yoruba Race because Oyo empire fell through rebellion and some other factors. So kindly differentiate between ancient CHRISTIANS and CRUSADERS. The Christians were killed just like many of the Africans were enslaved and not killed.

They should count themselves more luckier. In as much as, there is life, hope abound. Those who hates Christianity does it out of ignorance if they studied harder to understand. JESUS is more even real than Yoruba tradition. Even those who understand and practice IFA knows a name called “ELA". They turned ELA to another personality but the truth is that ELA means “REVELATION". only JESUS is the true revelation in the proper way. So, study and learn about the greatest POWER that ever lived as “ A MAN IN FLESH"

Nonsense. What you're doing is mixing Ifa with Christianity because you need Ifa to support the falsehood of Christianity. Ela has nothing to do with Jesus, nothing. What you are doing is an amalgamation because Christian theory lacks facts to support its cosmology. But this is well known by many Christian Freemasons who are the Pastors of Christendom but they teach this fake Christ to the people, fake world paradigmn . They get rich off of the ignorance of the people. As far as Mr. Samuel Ajayi crowther, being an African young boy, taken in by pedophile White Angelican priests, is unfortunate, and also, that he happens to be the one that introduced your lineage to Christianity. Everytime I see a Black Bishop I know I'm looking at a man who holds in a dark painful secret. The Catholic Church, no matter Anglican, Episcopal, or Roman Catholic, during slavery, before slavery, and after are reaping full of pedophiles. No one can move up in the ranks unless you're a sodomite.

Now I respect ancestoral worship but within reason. I don't allow within my prayer circle ancestors who lived a lie and operated within a sham. And who feels sorry for the dead, I don't. Who feels sorry for the living, I don't. But Black Christians at the high levels of Christiandom, which includes Pastors, Bishops, and Freemasons, are some dirty Christians. They form the basis of the demonic Illuminati. Only the small Christians, who are in congregations, who really believe this lie are some what innocent. There is no Jesus Christ. There is no Ball Shaped Earth. This world and everything in it was created by the Irunmole who are the Ancestors of Africans. The Pisces Age is coming to an end. We are in the age of Enlightenment and Information. Ase.

Nonsense. What you're doing is mixing Ifa with Christianity because you need Ifa to support the falsehood of Christianity. Ela has nothing to do with Jesus, nothing. What you are doing is an amalgamation because Christian theory lacks facts to support its cosmology. But this is well known by many Christian Freemasons who are the Pastors of Christendom but they teach this fake Christ to the people, fake world paradigmn . They get rich off of the ignorance of the people. As far as Mr. Samuel Ajayi crowther, being an African young boy, taken in by pedophile White Angelican priests, is unfortunate, and also, that he happens to be the one that introduced your lineage to Christianity. Everytime I see a Black Bishop I know I'm looking at a man who holds in a dark painful secret. The Catholic Church, no matter Anglican, Episcopal, or Roman Catholic, during slavery, before slavery, and after are reaping full of pedophiles. No one can move up in the ranks unless you're a sodomite.

Now I respect ancestoral worship but within reason. I don't allow within my prayer circle ancestors who lived a lie and operated within a sham. And who feels sorry for the dead, I don't. Who feels sorry for the living, I don't. But Black Christians at the high levels of Christiandom, which includes Pastors, Bishops, and Freemasons, are some dirty Christians. They form the basis of the demonic Illuminati. Only the small Christians, who are in congregations, who really believe this lie are some what innocent. There is no Jesus Christ. There is no Ball Shaped Earth. This world and everything in it was created by the Irunmole who are the Ancestors of Africans. The Pisces Age is coming to an end. We are in the age of Enlightenment and Information. Ase.

The first man you brought up was Mr. Samuel Ajayi crowther, who was son of a king, but he wasn't the king. I wanted to emphasis that being royalty, prince, princess, etc, doesn't mean one is the crowned ruler The ruler is chosen by Ifa not by popularity. It just means royal lineage which is higher than noble and commoner. Now this man you bring up, LATE APOSTLE AYO BABALOLA, was a commoner. Show me where an Alaafin of Oyo, the true head of the Empire, has bowed down to Jesus Christ? You can't because it doesn't ever happen. There's only a certain class of Yorubas that are validating Christianity, they are those who lost everything in the war and slavery. You have a prince who can't afford schooling so he goes into an Angelical orphanage to get education. More than likely molested and raped because this is what these dirty Catholics do to little Black boys. No one rises high as a Bishop in the European structural world paradigm without being a sodomite. As well as use them as slaves, servants and sacrifices. Second, you got a poor Yoruba boy who can't afford education going to an all Anglican Catholic school for his primary education. He's been brainwashed, and you want me to accept this all, as pure fact, as something to get rid of my African faith?

All the nations that attacked, enslaved and colonized Africa were Christian nations.

These are the top 6 nations that got rich of off the slave trade.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ENGLAND, GREAT BRITAIN
FRANCE
NETHERLANDS
PORTUGAL
SPAIN

Find one on this list that isn't a Christian nation.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tESjLy1o-Nw


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06mD6HZUgGY

Let's talk about the pedophiles now that are existing in the Black Church? Where ever you have homosexual kids you have pedophiles. If you have homosexual kids in the music choir and the music choir director is a sodomite then how can one not make the connection? All these Christian Churches that are marrying gays. Gay Black Pastors and Pastors sleeping with boys in the churches. Pastors sleeping with other mens wives. Where is the integrity of Jesus Christ if these people are so damn dirty?


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cGrlhCuHLw

The first man you brought up was Mr. Samuel Ajayi crowther, who was son of a king, but he wasn't the king. I wanted to emphasis that being royalty, prince, princess, etc, doesn't mean one is the crowned ruler The ruler is chosen by Ifa not by popularity. It just means royal lineage which is higher than noble and commoner. Now this man you bring up, LATE APOSTLE AYO BABALOLA, was a commoner. Show me where an Alaafin of Oyo, the true head of the Empire, has bowed down to Jesus Christ? You can't because it doesn't ever happen. There's only a certain class of Yorubas that are validating Christianity, they are those who lost everything in the war and slavery. You have a prince who can't afford schooling so he goes into an Angelical orphanage to get education. More than likely molested and raped because this is what these dirty Catholics do to little Black boys. No one rises high as a Bishop in the European structural world paradigm without being a sodomite. As well as use them as slaves, servants and sacrifices. Second, you got a poor Yoruba boy who can't afford education going to an all Anglican Catholic school for his primary education. He's been brainwashed, and you want me to accept this all, as pure fact, as something to get rid of my African faith?

All the nations that attacked, enslaved and colonized Africa were Christian nations.

These are the top 6 nations that got rich of off the slave trade.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ENGLAND, GREAT BRITAIN
FRANCE
NETHERLANDS
PORTUGAL
SPAIN

Find one on this list that isn't a Christian nation.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tESjLy1o-Nw


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06mD6HZUgGY

Let's talk about the pedophiles now that are existing in the Black Church? Where ever you have homosexual kids you have pedophiles. If you have homosexual kids in the music choir and the music choir director is a sodomite then how can one not make the connection? All these Christian Churches that are marrying gays. Gay Black Pastors and Pastors sleeping with boys in the churches. Pastors sleeping with other mens wives. Where is the integrity of Jesus Christ if these people are so damn dirty?


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cGrlhCuHLw

That's a lie. There are over 16 crucified Saviors bearing all the same story of Jesus Christ which predate Christianity. Not only is Christianity false, it EVEN isn't original. There was no Christian Church in Africa prior to the Roman Catholic Church which proves its a Roman faith. You are bowing to Rome under some strange denominational twist of the same garbage. Its simply too much information available on the internet, attainable within a few keystrokes, results appear within seconds, for this dirty lie to continue unchallenged. There is no JESUS CHRIST.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQNT6ZHryyk



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNtF1-Y-JJM

All these gays in the Church. This where these all gay children are coming from. This is small Christians, those in the congregations, who really believe this lie of Jesus Christ, fighting these homosexuals demons in the Church. Its futile because Christianity is a homosexual/pedophile Roman religion. Ase.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbUjrp6vOUs

How come you lie and say that Christainity isn't doing nothing with sodomy and pedophiles? They are marrying gays, and by marrying gays, they are condoning gays to start families. This leads to the adoption of children by gays and they will molest those children to make sure those children turn out like them. Everything starts with the spiritual so if the Father of the house is okaying same sex then the father is a pedophile. You can't get gay children without pedophiles molesting them. Ase.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4VWQjszVEs

How come you lie and say that Christainity isn't doing nothing with sodomy and pedophiles? They are marrying gays, and by marrying gays, they are condoning gays to start families. This leads to the adoption of children by gays and they will molest those children to make sure those children turn out like them. Everything starts with the spiritual so if the Father of the house is okaying same sex then the father is a pedophile. You can't get gay children without pedophiles molesting them. Ase.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4VWQjszVEs

Now you're claiming innocent when you were just defending Christianity. Look, I'm not saying that some Christians are fake, I'm saying that Christianity is fake and is the origin of all this Satanic Illuminati spiritual attack upon humanity. There is no JESUS CHRIST. The very notion of such is what the problem is, it is what has made the human being become a walking demon. Christian nations are responsible for all sorts of demonic activity on this plane. No one is innocent if you remain apart of this faith knowing its origin in slavery, death, demon worship, sodomy, child sacrifice and unmerciful cruelty.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LClaSilFlA8

Now you're claiming innocent when you were just defending Christianity. Look, I'm not saying that some Christians are fake, I'm saying that Christianity is fake and is the origin of all this Satanic Illuminati spiritual attack upon humanity. There is no JESUS CHRIST. The very notion of such is what the problem is, it is what has made the human being become a walking demon. Christian nations are responsible for all sorts of demonic activity on this plane. No one is innocent if you remain apart of this faith knowing its origin in slavery, death, demon worship, sodomy, child sacrifice and unmerciful cruelty.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LClaSilFlA8

Thereis no Jesus Christ to ever walk the Earth. And again you are mixing, Yoruba culture and Ifa Are pure, nothing perverted about them. But Christianity is Roman when Romans are some freaks. Adopting or mixing Roman Illumanti Christianity with pure Mother Godess culture like Ifa is an abomination. Ase.

Thereis no Jesus Christ to ever walk the Earth. And again you are mixing, Yoruba culture and Ifa Are pure, nothing perverted about them. But Christianity is Roman are they are some freaks. Adopting or mixing Roman Illumanti Christianity with pure Mother Godess culture like Ifa is an abomination. Ase.

listen, never quote again to this nonsense! I dont have time for madness

I am not hebrew and have nothing to do with the middle eastern cultures or language. if your father is hebrew, cool, go and start living in israel( land of your masters)..

all this madness is getting out of hand. christianity has fried this one's brain like akara

Is it mere coincidence that all these Nigerian "Israelites" are deeply Christian, and all these Nigerian "Arabians" are deeply Muslim?

macof:
listen, never quote again to this nonsense! I dont have time for madness

I am not hebrew and have nothing to do with the middle eastern cultures or language. if your father is hebrew, cool, go and start living in israel( land of your masters)..

all this madness is getting out of hand. christianity has fried this one's brain like akara

macof:
listen, never quote again to this nonsense! I dont have time for madness

I am not hebrew and have nothing to do with the middle eastern cultures or language. if your father is hebrew, cool, go and start living in israel( land of your masters)..

all this madness is getting out of hand. christianity has fried this one's brain like akara

RedboneSmith:
Is it mere coincidence that all these Nigerian "Israelites" are deeply Christian, and all these Nigerian "Arabians" are deeply Muslim?

these two religions are a great evil to africa. imagine the madman still quoting me with nonsense, yet not a single thread of evidence to back his statements. but of course, there isn't any evidence at all

anybody who thinks yoruba are not related to Edos, igbos, Fons etc, rather hebrews or arabs needs a brain check.

macof:
these two religions are a great evil to africa. imagine the madman still quoting me with nonsense, yet not a single thread of evidence to back his statements. but of course, there isn't any evidence at all

anybody who thinks yoruba are not related to Edos, igbos, Fons etc, rather hebrews or arabs needs a brain check.


Oyo Empire - History


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The Oyo Empire was established by the Yoruba people in the 15th century and was one of the largest West African states. It succeeded Ile Ife as the dominant kingdom in the area after 1700. The nearby Benin kingdom was also an important kingdom.


Oyo palace in 1890s

The city engaged extensively in trade and became wealthy. It was known for its powerful cavalry. The capital city was Oyo-Ile, also sometimes called Katunga or Old Oyo. The palace of the ruler (oba) was the most important building. The large market was the heart of the city. There was a tall wall made of earth around the city for defense.

The Oyo traded with the Portuguese for guns and horses. Their cavalry and guns enabled them to dominate the region between 1700 and 1900. Civil war and divide and conquer strategies of the Europeans eventually brought about the decline of the Oyo.


Map of palace compound of Oyo-Ile

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The Rise of the Oyo Empire

The mythical origins of the Oyo Empire lie with Oranyan (also known as Oranmiyan), the second prince of Ile-Ife, who made Oyo his new kingdom and became the first oba with the title of Alaafin of Oyo (Alaafin means “owner of the palace” in Yoruba). The oral tradition holds that he left all his treasures in Ife and allowed another king, named Adimu, to rule there.

Oranyan was succeeded by Oba Ajaka, but he was deposed because he allowed his sub-chiefs too much independence. Leadership was then conferred upon Ajaka’s brother, Shango, who was later deified as the deity of thunder and lightning. Ajaka was restored after Shango’s death. His successor, Kori, managed to conquer the rest of what later historians would refer to as metropolitan Oyo. The heart of metropolitan Oyo was its capital at Oyo-Ile.

Oyo had grown into a formidable inland power by the end of the 14th century, but it suffered military defeats at the hands of the Nupe led by Tsoede. Sometime around 1535, the Nupe occupied Oyo and forced its ruling dynasty to take refuge in the kingdom of Borgu.
The Yoruba of Oyo went through an interregnum of eighty years as an exiled dynasty. However, they re-established Oyo to be more centralized and expansive than ever. During the 17th century, Oyo began a long stretch of growth, becoming a major empire. It never encompassed all Yoruba-speaking people, but it was the most populous kingdom in Yoruba history.

Oyo Empire and surrounding states c. 1700. The Oyo Empire rose through the outstanding organizational skills of the Yoruba, gaining wealth from trade and its powerful cavalry. It was the most politically important state in the region from the mid-17th century to the late 18th century, holding sway not only over most of the other kingdoms in Yorubaland, but also over nearby African states, notably the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey in the modern Republic of Benin to the west.


Pre-Colonial Political Administration in Yoruba Land

The Yoruba political administration had a decentralized structure i.e. power was constitutionally shared among all political levels/sections of the kingdom ranging from the highest to the lowest unit unlike the Hausa political system which was highly centralized.

The Yoruba political administration was also based on the ultimate principle of ‘check and balance’ which implies that each of the administrative levels can check, challenge or nullify actions of other levels irrespective of their administrative hierarchy, for example, in the political system of the Oyo empire, the Oyomesi (the 7 hereditary kingmakers headed by Bashorun) and the Are-Ona-Kakanfo (head of the army) acted as checks to the Alaafin who can be deposed by being presented an empty calabash or parrot’s egg if found incompetent or guilty of impeachable crimes, for example, Are-Ona-Kakanfo Afonja, with the help of some of the Oyomesi, presented an empty calabash to Alaafin Aole signifying his rejection as the king which was to be followed by his suicide. However, it can be safely concluded that the Yoruba political system had a semblance to the modern federal system of government.

The Yoruba political structure revolved round many figures starting from the Oba, the political head, council of chiefs (Ijoye which consisted of Iyalode, Otun, Osi, Iyaloja etc.), the kingmakers (Afobaje, part of whom might be the chiefs), the Baale, the army (Esho) and the religious cult. It must be noted that the titles of some of these figures vary in each Yoruba kingdom, for example, the Oba is known as Alaafin in Oyo while in Ife, he is referred to as Oni. The kingmakers are also known as Oyomesi in Oyo while the Ijebus call them Osugbo.

It must also be noted that succession to the throne of some, if not many kingdoms in Yorubaland was not hereditary. The Aremo (prince) can only help his father in administering the kingdom or empire but cannot succeed him after his death. After the demise of a king, a new one is chosen from the same or another household by the kingmakers with the help of the religious cult.

Of all the kingdoms and empires in Yorubaland, the Oyo political system was the most popular and outstanding as it was able to influence issues in other kingdoms like Ijebu, Ife, Dahomey (now Republic of Benin) and so on.

Below is the political administrative structure of the Oyo Empire.

The vast Oyo empire was known to be the largest and the most powerful of all Yoruba empires.

Here is the pre-colonial political administration of the Oyo empire:

THE ALAAFIN:

The Alaafin was seen as the political head of the empire. He was chosen by the Oyomesi. It was claimed that he could only appear three times a year in public and that was only during some historic festivals.

The Aremo:

He is the eldest son of the ruling Alaafin but cannot succeed his father at his demise. He can only help his father in the administration of the empire.

The Oyomesi:

These are the seven hereditary kingmakers in the Oyo empire. Their leader was Bashroun. They were responsible for installing a new Alaafin.

Baale or Oba:

Each province was administered by Ajele or Oba. They guaranteed the payment of tribute and homage to the Alaafin. There was the claim that this rulers had the power to threaten any hardened Alaafin or chief by invoking the god of thunder and lightning through the cult of Sango, a deified Alaafin.

The Army (Eso):

Are- ono kankanfo was the head of the army. Oyo had for long maintained a strong army that had been used in winning different wars. It was claimed that if the army should suffer any defeat, the Are- ona- kankanfo was to commit suicide or go on exile.

The Ogboni Society:

This society posses judicial powers and was involved also in policy making. The maintenance and preservation of the cultural values of the people were also delegated to them. They influence a lot of issues in the society.

The Three Eunuchs:

They were also involved in the administration of the empire. They were:

  1. The Osi Efa: He was in charge of political affairs, he has to die with the Alaafin. He was also called ‘Abobaku’.
  2. The Ona Efa: He was for judicial purpose
  3. The Otun Efa: His function was to perform religious duties for the Alaafin.

Pre-colonial systems in Nigeria witnessed a lot of alterations at the advent of the British colonial masters. Several traditional rulers tried to protect and preserve the political organisation of their kingdoms or empires but later gave up after much pressure and threat from the colonial masters. Colonialism had a great impact on every pre- colonial systems in Nigeria, even till today.

[Attributions and Licenses]

References and Further Reading:

C. C. Dibie Essential Government for Senior Secondary Schools 3rd edition Lagos Tonad Publishers 2008


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